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19 rail service and the installation of 1,200 security cameras to ership (Issue Paper 23, June 2007). The same report noted guard Swedish subway and commuter rail stations (Howarth the prevalence of video surveillance technology both inside 2007). One vendor put the number of cameras at 2.75 million stations and onboard vehicles and also noted that in response in China, 4.2 million in the United Kingdom, and 30 million to citizens' desire for greater levels of protection, a number in the United States and estimated that the global market of transit systems, including Greater Vancouver, Toronto, was worth $13 billion in 2009 and could be worth $41 bil- and Ottawa, have increased the legal powers of their security lion by 2014 (Ben-Zvi 2009). But vendor estimates might personnel, including broadening powers of arrest and autho- be taken with a grain of salt, particularly because periodic rizing officers to enforce the Criminal Code as well as laws reports indicate that even in countries where law enforce- relating to trespassing, liquor licensing, and controlled sub- ment is more centralized than in the United States, the actual stances violations (Issue Paper 23, June 2007). The policing number of surveillance cameras is difficult to calculate. configurations of Canadian transit agencies are not unlike the United States in that officers range from those who have full police authority to those who are basically security officers. USE OF VIDEO SURVEILLANCE BY CANADIAN TRANSIT SYSTEMS In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attacks, the Canadian federal government assumed a larger role in transit security Rarely have transit studies played as pivotal a role in theories both financially and through regulations that require agencies of crime than in those pertaining to fear of crime. One of the to conduct risk assessments, outline mitigation strategies, and earliest and most important of such studies was conducted by develop systemwide security plans. For instance, the Transit- the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) in 1976. Responding Secure Program set aside $80 million CAD (Canadian dol- to the concerns of the Metro Action Committee on Public lars) to support security measures by urban transit (bus) and Violence Against Women and Children (METRAC) and passenger rail operators. The first round of funding, which the Metro Toronto Police Force, the TTC undertook a safety was announced at the end of 2006, included up to CAD$37 audit, which documented that despite a low crime rate, the million to help transit systems in Canada's six major met- subway system was perceived as unsafe by many women. ropolitan areas (Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Toronto, Ottawa-Gatineau, and Montreal) conduct risk assessments; The study, Moving Forward: Making Transit Safer for develop security plans; create employee training and public Women (1989), for the first time formally recognized the awareness programs; and upgrade security equipment such as much higher levels of fear expressed by women patrons of surveillance equipment, access control technology, and light- public transit. The study stemmed from a safety audit that ing. The second round of Transit-Secure funding, announced established that women feared sexual assault on the Toronto in 2007, included up to CAD$2 million to support risk assess- transit system despite its low crime rate. Women, who had ments and comprehensive security planning by smaller com- not previously been asked such questions, admitted that their munities that rely on bus rather than rail service. fears caused them to limit their use of transit altogether or during nighttime hours. To address these fears, features Transport Canada, Public Safety Canada, and local stake- were added to the transit system that are today taken for holders have sponsored a number of emergency prepared- granted, including installing passenger assistance alarms ness activities, particularly in the interjurisdictional areas in transit vehicles, installing emergency telephones on plat- that include Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal. These activi- forms, closing off dead-end passageways, creating visibly ties, which include tabletop, command post, and full-scale marked off-hours waiting areas, and creating large and eas- live exercises and drills, are sponsored to help government ily understood signage. officials, transit system personnel, first responders, and law enforcement agencies prepare for their emergency roles. In responding to Moving Forward, the TTC turned to video surveillance as a crime prevention and fear alleviation Toronto Transit Commission tool. This tactic has become common throughout Canada, where passenger rail systems rely heavily on video surveil- The TTC, the largest transit system in Canada, carried 445 lance. Many of these agencies provide considerable detail million passengers on 2,500 vehicles in 2006. Based on a about their safety and security strategies on their websites, review of antiterrorism security weaknesses that identified a including more open discussion of the presence of surveil- number of potential mitigation measures in 2006, TTC was lance than is found on U.S. transit agency websites. awarded CAD$1.5 million in Transit-Secure funding to sup- port a terrorism-specific risk and vulnerability assessment, Just as in the United States, residents of major Canadian enhance property security and access controls, and install cities and their suburbs depend on rail transit for travel to a surface vehicle broadcast messaging system. Future ini- and from their central business districts. According to the tiatives could include enhanced visual monitoring technol- Canadian Urban Transport Association, in 2007 public tran- ogy for subway stations and high-risk surface vehicle routes sit employed 45,000 people and had a 1.7 billion total rid- (Issue Paper 23, June 2007).

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20 In addition, in October 2007, the TTC announced plans to in French or in English, provide the same level of detail on install nearly 12,000 surveillance cameras on its entire fleet safety and security arrangements as those of the other Cana- of buses, streetcars, and on all new subway cars and also at dian transit agencies. all rail and bus stations. The system was planned for real- time viewing as well as having the capability to download Because the Metro's rubber-tire subway cars are among video to a central archive for investigations of past crimes. the oldest currently in use, dating back to the mid-1960s, and Streetcars were expected to be outfitted with between four are not air-conditioned, it is likely that no video surveillance and six cameras each and plans called for the nearly 250 new system exists on the cars, which also do not permit passen- subway cars to each have one camera. No decision had been gers to move between cars once onboard. Even the newer cars made on whether the existing 800 subway cars would be date from 1976, before rail vehicle manufacturers delivered retrofitted (Edwards 2007). The new cars, manufactured by equipment with pre-installed surveillance systems. Requests Bombardier Transportation, also include a two-way inter- for proposals for bids in 2008, though, specified that vehicles com system for drivers and passengers to communicate, and include larger windows, additional lighting, high-definition the cars can be delivered with integrated communications televisions, a new public address system, and surveillance for passengers for alerts such as which doors will open and cameras. More recently, in October 2010, the STM signed which stations are being approached. a contract for 468 rail vehicles meeting its specifications ("STM contract signing..." Oct. 22, 2010). Ottawa O-Train In late 2007, Metro announced that it would use CAD$3.6 Ottawa's LRT service is Canada's newest and smallest rail million of the CAD$5.7 million that the Montreal region transit system. Opened in 2001, the O-Train travels for about had obtained from the Transit-Secure program to add 240 5 miles, carrying about 10,000 passengers daily. Unlike video cameras to the 1,200 already in place. An additional many LRT systems, its alignment is entirely isolated from CAD$75,000 would be used to improve the reliability of road traffic but the lightly-used Ottawa Central provides video surveillance equipment at Montreal's downtown Cen- infrequent freight traffic on pre-existing Canadian Pacific tral Station. Cameras would be located in areas identified Railway track after the O-Train's operating hours. in a study based specifically on terrorism-related security issues ("Cash to Secure..." 2007). Operated by OC Transpo under its official name of Capital Railway, the system is considered light rail in part because of Alberta Transit Systems extension plans into downtown Ottawa and in part because its railcars are smaller and lighter than most in North Amer- The province of Alberta is home to two of Canada's pas- ica and do not meet Association of American Railroads' senger rail systems, the Calgary Transit Authority and the standards for crash-worthiness for mainline train cars. The Edmonton Transit System. Both provide considerable detail railcars use one operator and no additional crew. The three on their websites about their service and their safety and diesel-powered Talent railcars, built by Bombardier as part security policies and advise readers that the collection of of a larger order for Deutsche Bahn's regional network, run recorded camera images is authorized under Section 33c of on 15-minute headways. Five stations are monitored by sur- the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act. veillance cameras and their images are observed by com- munications officers. These officers also answer emergency Edmonton's light rail system is a 21 km (about 13 miles), calls and dispatch the Transit Special Constables, who are 15-station system operating 74 LRVs that carry more than supported by members of the Ottawa Police Service for 74,000 passengers on an average day. Average speed is 70 problems they are not authorized or trained to handle. km per hour (kp/h) [about 44 miles per hour (mph)], and headways are 5 minutes during peak hours. All stations and Montreal Metro major transit centers feature surveillance cameras that are linked into an emergency telephone network that is acti- Montreal is served by two transit agencies. The Montreal vated as soon as the help phone is engaged and also allows Metro is a 71-km (about 44 miles) subway system operated an officer in the control room to speak with the patron over by the Socit de transport de Montral (STM) that currently the phone. Safety and Security Division personnel are also comprises 67 stations on four separate lines. The Agence able to monitor incidents through a computer-aided dis- mtropolitaine de transport operates the 214-km (about 133 patch system in patrol vehicles. This system allows officers miles) rail agency that provides service on five commuter to receive information from control center staff viewing rail lines in addition to operating a bus network. The Metro the surveillance monitors. Transit officers are designated is Canada's longest subway system and the busiest in terms as special constables, which authorizes them to enforce of daily passengers (987,000 on an average weekday in 2008, transit laws and to carry batons and pepper spray. Funds when more than 290 million riders used the system). Neither for ongoing enhancements to lighting, to improve CPTED the subway's nor the commuter rail line's websites, whether design features in and around stations, and to improve the