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62 GLOSSARY Alignment--the pathway on which the train travels; in the may be at or above ground level. Examples: Metropolitan light rail transit industry, alignment is also frequently Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), Washington referred to as the guideway or the fixed guideway; in the Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), and the heavy, commuter, and freight rail industry, this is most Metropolitan Transportation Authority's New York City often referred to as the right-of-way. Transit (NYCT). Analog surveillance system --analog cameras convert Injury--harm to a person resulting from a single event, information to an analog signal that may be displayed in activity, occurrence, or exposure of short duration. real time on a monitor, recorded onto a videotape storage Light rail--features lightweight passenger rail vehicles that device, or both; the first generation of surveillance sys- operate singly or in two- or four-car trains on fixed rails tems were all analog, but as transit agencies upgrade their on alignments that often share streets and roadways with systems most are turning to digital technology. other traffic. Light rail systems are generally powered by At-grade --tracks are at-grade when they are on the same an overhead electric line; passengers board in stations or level as the roadway or the existing rail tracks that they from track-side stops in the street. Streetcars are a type of parallel; grade-separated tracks are those above or below light rail service with frequent stops and nearly the entire the existing roadway or tracks. route is operated in streets to allow passengers to board and alight quickly. Examples: Denver's Regional Trans- Commuter rail--FRA-compliant railcars powered by either portation District (RTD), Utah Transit Agency, and diesel or electricity that provide regional passenger service Phoenix's Valley Metro Rail. or service between a central city and its suburbs. Com- muter rail service is provided on regular railroads or for- Overt surveillance --cameras are in view of the public and mer railroad rights-of-way; trains may be self-propelled or their existence is generally accompanied by signage hauled by locomotives. Commuter rail is characterized by alerting people that they are in an area that is under video high-speed, infrequent-stop service. Examples: Virginia surveillance. There is a strong crime prevention element Railway Express (VRE), the Metropolitan Transportation to such systems, but, depending on how accessible and Administration's Long Island Railroad (LIRR) and Metro- visible the cameras are to the public, there is a possibility North Railroad (MNRR), New Jersey Transit (NJT), and of tampering with and vandalizing the equipment. Northstar Commuter Rail (Minneapolis, MN). Pan-tilt-zoom camera--a camera that can pan (move left Consist (pronounced CON-sist) --a group of railcars com- and right), tilt (move up and down), and zoom in or out; bined to make up a train; four rail cars running as one its dome can rotate 360 degrees to view an object directly train is called a four-car consist. below it. Pan-tilt-zoom cameras are preferred because of their greater viewing range and because the camera can Covert surveillance --cameras are hidden and there is no be remotely controlled by viewers to look more closely at signage indicating their installation; this approach is best specific events that have attracted their attention or to suited to crime detection and in a transit environment which they have been alerted by analytics. would most likely be installed where a problem with crime or fraud has been established and the agency's aim is to Right-of-way (ROW) --the pathway on which the train make apprehensions to pursue criminal or civil actions. travels; any piece of equipment/person within 25 feet of the track is considered to be in the ROW. [See also Digital surveillance system --digital cameras convert Alignment] image information into data that can be displayed, stored, or both; because storage is on a compact disk or a com- Semi-covert surveillance --cameras are in public view but puter's hard drive, it is less space-intensive than an ana- concealed, often behind one-way transparent cases; this log system; additionally, because exact copies of the approach is similar in its crime prevention efforts to an images can be made, they are considered more accurate overt system but provides greater protection to the equip- and more dependable than analog systems as evidence for ment and makes it more difficult for the public to know cases involving retroactive investigation. the number of cameras or their exact locations. Heavy rail--electric railways characterized by high speed Transit system--the facilities, equipment, personnel, and and rapid acceleration; passenger railcars that operate on procedures needed to provide and maintain public transit rights-of-way separate from other vehicular and/or service. pedestrian traffic; trains are boarded in stations from Trespassers --persons on a railroad's property in railroad high-level platforms. The service may be referred to as a operation whose presence is prohibited or unlawful; a subway although stations and parts of the right-of-way

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63 person on a highway-rail crossing is not classified as a contractors), and persons adjacent to railroad premises trespasser unless the crossing is protected by gates or when they are injured owing to railroad operations. Off barriers that were closed when the person entered the railroad property they are persons affected by an event crossing, or unless the person attempted to pass over, which begins on railroad property but ends on non-rail- under, or between cars or locomotives of a train occupy- road property, for example, a derailment that results in a ing the crossing. Non-trespassers on railroad property release of hazardous materials onto non-railroad prop- are persons lawfully on property used in railroad opera- erty, which injures a "nontrespasser" located on tion (other than employees, passengers, trespassers, or that property.