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68 LITERATURE REVIEW [ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY] Balog, J.N., A.N. Schwartz, and B.C. Doyle, Transit Secu- Bloom, R.F., Closed Circuit Television in Transit Stations: rity Procedures Guide, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Application Guidelines, Report ED-80-1, Dunlap and Asso- Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1994. ciates, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1980. This FTA guide provides a systems approach to transit Provides guidelines on preventive security measures and security planning and implementation, provides procedures surveillance techniques applicable for transit stations. for immediate and follow-up responses to incidents, and highlights a number of common transit security problems as Chace, R.W., An Overview of the Guidelines for Closed Circuit well as defensive actions systems can employ to minimize Television (CCTV) for Public Safety and Community Policing, those problems. Security Industry Association, Alexandria, Va., 2001. Developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Balog, J.N., A.N. Schwartz, and B.C. Doyle, Transit System Police (IACP) in conjunction with the Security Industry Asso- Security Program Planning Guide, Federal Transit Admin- ciation as part of the IACP Private Sector Liaison Committee, istration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, this primer provides guidance to law enforcement in the use D.C., 1994. of overt cameras in public areas for public safety purposes. At the time of publication, the FTA encouraged but now mandates that all transit agencies develop and implement a Clarke, R.V., Ed. Preventing Mass Transit Crime, Criminal system security plan. Although aspects of the document are Justice Press., Monsey, N.Y., 1996. no longer policy, the guide contains a useful bibliography of This book contains academic studies by a variety of authors about 200 items on transit security. who considered the use of crime prevention through environ- mental design and other tactics in transit environments. Barbeau, S., M. Labrador, P. Winters, and N.L. Georggi, Enhancing Transit Safety and Security with Wireless Detec- Cozens, P., R. Neale, D. Hillier, and J. Whitaker, Tackling tion and Communication Technologies, Final Report BD549 Crime and Fear of Crime While Waiting at Britain's Rail- RPWO # 45 for the Florida Department of Transportation, way Stations, Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 7, No. Tampa, Fla., National Center for Transit Research, Center for 3, 2004, pp. 2341. Urban Transportation Research, University of Florida, 2008. A study of passengers' fear at stations using Quick Time Report on a project to develop a scalable, real-time intru- Virtual Reality, an interactive environmental stimulus for sion detection and remote notification system using wireless gaining insights into passengers' fear of crime. Visibility at sensor networks; it is an alternative or supplement to tradi- stations was identified as a crucial factor in determining fear tional wired security systems for protecting such areas and of crime. The design of the station's shelter is analyzed as an facilities as garages, tunnels, and yards. example of how CPTED is being implemented on railway stations by Valley Lines (Wales and Borders Trains) on its Bennett, T. and L. Gelsthorpe, Public Attitudes Towards network in South Wales (UK). CCTV in Public Places, Studies on Crime Prevention, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1996, pp. 7290. DeGeneste, H.I. and J.P. Sullivan, Policing Transportation When asked to rank desired crime prevention strategies Facilities, Chares C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1994. that included CCTV, more police officers patrolling on foot, Although somewhat dated, this book remains an excellent or brighter street lights at night, CCTV ranked third. primer on the problems confronting police at airports, water- front terminals, and rail and transit facilities. DeGeneste, Black, T., Cameras Make Portland Buses More Secure, The the PANY&NJ retired director of public safety and super- American City & County, Oct. 1998, p. S18. intendent of police, and Sullivan, a Los Angeles Sheriff's In 1987, Portland, Oregon, Tri-Met began its use of sur- Department supervisory officer who has spent much of his veillance technology by equipping three buses with three career in transit policing, provide chapters on commuter cameras each. In the mid-1990s, the agency equipped 40 rail and subway crime, terrorism, and problems associated buses with three cameras each. Tri-Met has been equipping with homelessness and mentally ill persons congregating in buses, rail cars, and facilities with digital cameras. The digi- transportation facilities. tal system provides sharp, focused images; good color; and the ability to manipulate data. The cameras are easily visible, Denver RTD Embraces Camera Surveillance, Transit Polic- and signage alerts riders of the cameras' presence. In addi- ing, Spring 1995, p. 28. tion to serving as a crime deterrent and providing potential Based on a pilot program that documented a decade of evidence in the event of criminal proceedings, cameras can crime and vandalism on its buses, the RTD equipped its light prevent civil litigation or help a transit agency win a claim. rail vehicles with surveillance cameras.
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69 Eder, A., After September 11, 2001: How Transit Agen- Gordon, R., Half of Muni Surveillance Cameras Fail in cies Prepare for the Threat of Terrorism, Transportation Audit, San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 29, 2009, n.p., accessed Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research online. Board, No. 1927, Transportation Research Board of the The onboard video surveillance equipment on more than National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2005, pp. 92100. half of San Francisco Muni's buses and trains was not fully This paper identifies pre-9/11 transit security planning, operational when the transit agency ordered an emergency showing how the attacks changed the way government and audit after the stabbing of an 11-year-old boy on a city bus. transit agencies address security concerns; includes an The entire fleet, with the exception of cable cars and streetcars, analysis of post-1/99 security measures adopted by the FTA, is outfitted with cameras, but the inspection found that of the New York City Transit, WMATA, and BART. A case study approximately 960 vehicles with surveillance devices, 22% of Tri-Met looks particularly at the agency's responses to were deemed completely nonfunctional and an additional 30% threats facing transit systems. only partially functional. The audit found a range of problems, including blurry images, vandalized cameras, poor sound, Egan, T., Police Surveillance of Streets Turn to Video Cam- broken data packs, bad cables, and inoperable recorders. eras and Listening Devices, The New York Times, Feb. 7, 1996, p. A12:12. George, B. and N. Whatford, The Regulation of Transport With the current focus on cameras surveilling city streets, Security Post 9/11, Security Journal, Vol. 20, 2007, pp. this article is a reminder that the technology has been used in 158170. this way for more than a decade. This paper explores regulatory initiatives that have emerged in aviation, maritime, and other forms of transport Fink, C.N.Y., Antiterrorism Security and Surface Transpor- since 9/11. tation Systems: Review of Case Studies and Current Tactics, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transpor- Greenberger, M., The Need for Closed Circuit Television in tation Research Board, No. 1822, 2003, Transportation Mass Transit Systems, Law Enforcement Executive Forum, Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 151155. D.C., pp. 917. This paper advocates use of video surveillance by transit Brief case studies of the bombing attacks in the London systems because they can be used anywhere, can be overt or and Paris subway systems and the chemical gas attacks in covert, and can be monitored in real time or for later review. the Tokyo subway system; recommends as cost-effective options for transit systems the use of CPTED, surveillance Hess, D.B., Security on Buses and Trains, Journal of Secu- systems (particularly CCTV), training and exercises, and rity Education, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006, pp. 119132. developing closer relationships with local, state, and federal This paper reviews research into protecting transit facili- agencies. ties and recommends research on technological innovations to prevent and thwart attacks, particularly those that begin to Gilbert, S., Surveillance Technologies: Electronically Lever- physically and technologically "close" public transit systems aging Transit Security Forces, The Police Chief, July 1995, and reduce unrestricted access. p. 22. Overview of surveillance measures employed by a vari- Identification of Cost-Effective Methods to Improve Security ety of transit agencies. at Transit Operating/Maintenance Facilities and Passenger Stations, FTA-FL-26-71054-03, U.S. Department of Trans- Goldgof, D.B., D. Sapper, J. Candamo, and M. Shreve, Eval- portation, Federal Transit Administration, Washington, uation of Smart Video for Transit Event Detection, Project D.C., July 2006. BD549-49, Final Report, Florida Department of Transporta- This report reviews actions taken since the September tion Research Center, Tallahassee, June 2009. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks by six transit agencies to increase Intended to develop an evaluation framework for commer- security using cost-effective methods. It contains a sum- cial video analytics systems, this report identifies strengths, mary of the consequences of terrorism on public transporta- weaknesses, areas of future research, and surveyed video tion systems, and provides a literature review. Case studies/ analytics products. Product capabilities were identified by best practices include those employed at Denver's Regional working with vendors and analyzing their literature. Use Transit District (RTD), the Washington Metropolitan Area of analytic technology in Florida transit agencies was ana- Transit Authority (WMATA), the Charlotte Area Transit lyzed; a survey among the largest agencies found low use of System (CATS), the Massachusetts Bay Transportation analytics, skepticism, and poor knowledge of the technol- Authority (MBTA), the Central Florida Regional Transpor- ogy and its capabilities. Conclusions include an evaluation tation Authority, and Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART). framework for analytics technology, including annotation guidelines, scoring metrics, and implementation of the met- Jenkins, B.M. and B.R. Butterworth, Selective Screening rics in the scoring software. of Rail Passengers, MTI Report 06-07, Norman Y. Mineta
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70 International Institute for Surface Transportation Policy This dissertation reviews safety strategies of Hong Studies Institute, San Jose, Calif., 2007. Kong's Mass Transit Railway Corporation based on patron- Focusing on terrorist risks confronting public transpor- age and coverage of the dense urban area, its comprehensive tation, this report explores how different forms of passen- Safety Management System and the high level of safety on ger screening, and particularly selective screening, can be the system. Despite an absence of accident-based fatalities, implemented to reduce those risks. the study concludes that if an accident were to occur in an underground section of the Mass Transit Railway, it is likely Jenkins, B.M., Protecting Surface Transportation Systems that fatalities would number in the thousands. and Patrons from Terrorist Activities: Case Studies of Best Security Practices and a Chronology of Attacks, MTI LaVigne, N.G., Safe Transport: Security by Design on the Report 97-04, Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Washington Metro, in Preventing Mass Transit Crime, Ron- Surface Transportation Policy Studies Institute, San Jose, ald V. Clarke, Ed., Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, N.Y., Calif., 1997. 1996, pp. 163197. The first phase of a study by the Mineta Institute on This article reviews the WMATA safety and security behalf of the U.S.DOT; this report includes case studies of design features that incorporated CPTED principles and transportation security in Paris, Atlanta, New York City, and electronic video surveillance since the transit system's by Amtrak; security surveys of nine additional U.S. cities, inception in 1976, leading many at the time to consider it the and an annotated bibliography of transit safety/security- and safest subway system in the world. transit terrorism-related works. Longmore-Etheridge, A., Security Works Minding the Jenkins, B.M., Protecting Public Surface Transportation Road, Security Management, Sep. 1995, pp. 2425. Against Terrorism and Serious Crime: An Executive Over- In a use of video surveillance that is today taken for view, MTI Report 01-014, Norman Y. Mineta International granted, in 1994 an onboard bus surveillance system was Institute for Surface Transportation Policy Studies Institute, instrumental in the capture and prosecution of an armed San Jose, Calif., 2001. man who had hidden in the bus and forced the driver to take This report states that for those who are attempting to kill him to downtown Savannah, Georgia. in quantity and kill indiscriminately, surface transportation offers the ideal target; however, because of the public nature Loukaitou-Sideris, A., A. Bornstein, C. Fink, L. Samuels, of mass transit, there is often little security with no check- and S. Gerami, How of Ease Women's Fears of Transporta- points (unlike airports). It addresses key questions as why tion Environments: Case Studies and Best Practices, MTI the level of vigilance in airports and related facilities is so Report 09-01, Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for different from expectations on public surface transportation Surface Transportation Policy Studies Institute, San Jose, systems. Calif., Oct. 2009. This report summarizes research on women's transit fears Jenkins, B.M. and L. Gersten, Protecting Public Surface and how safety concerns influence travel decisions. Through Transportation Against Terrorism and Serious Crime: Con- a literature review, focus groups, and questionnaires, it tinuing Research on Best Security Practices, MTI Report identifies women's perspectives and needs regarding tran- 01-07, Norman Y. Mineta International Institute for Surface sit safety; through a survey of 131 U.S transit operators, Transportation Policy Studies Institute, San Jose, Calif., assesses if the needs are being met and describes programs 2001. and best practices from the United States and overseas that This report continues earlier studies by Jenkins and asso- address women's concerns. Among the findings are women ciates on best practices to stem terrorist assaults on surface passengers have distinct travel needs that not well addressed transportation systems worldwide. This study examines by transit agencies. security practices in effect at public surface transportation facilities in Tokyo and London--both targets of terror- Loukaitou-Sideris, A., B.D. Taylor, and C.N.Y. Fink, Rail ist attacks--and in the San Francisco Bay Area and the Transit Security in an International Context: Lessons from Santa Clara Valley of California. It updates the chronol- Four Cities, Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2006, pp. ogy contained in the previous report and adds an annotated 727748. bibliography. This article draws from interviews with rail transit security officials, architects, and engineers responsible for Leung, S.K., A Review of Safety Strategies of Mass Tran- designing and operating systems in London, Paris, Tokyo, sit Railway in Hong Kong, Dissertation submitted in partial and Madrid. The interviewees report on a mix of strategies fulfillment of the requirements for Degree of Master of Arts to balance the trade-offs between security and openness at the University of Hong Kong, June 1999. http://sunzi.lib. and attractiveness of their systems, making coordination hku.hk/hkuto/view/B3195232X/ft.pdf. Accessed Nov. 18, between transit agencies and police/intelligence agencies a 2009. crucial component of security planning.
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71 Luczak, M., Smart Security Strategies, Railway Age, Apr., Nakanishi, Y., TCRP Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update: 2006, pp. 4647. A Synthesis of Transit Practices, Transportation Research According to LU Managing Director Tim O'Toole, you Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. have to invest in people and rely on them; you have to invest An updating of the Needle and Cobb's 1997 Improving in technology, but do not rely on it. O'Toole offered attend- Transit Security (TCRP Synthesis 21), this report covers ees of the second-annual Railway Security Forum & Expo traditional crime and terrorism, which was not included lessons learned, emphasizing the importance of commu- in the earlier report. Based on a survey of transit agencies, nications, not just technology. To secure LU, the agency is case studies, and a literature review, it updates information upgrading its 300 cameras from analog to digital and will on security measures and practices; perception of crime, eventually have 12,000 installed. including terrorism; and counterterrorism security mea- sures and practices, including surveillance and intrusion Mackay, D., The Changing Nature of Public-Space CCTV, detection policies. Security Journal, Vol. 19 (2006), pp. 128142. Public-space CCTV has been regarded as a crime preven- Nieto, M., K. Johnston-Dodds, and C.W. Simmons, Public tion tool that assists in reducing crime and has been scruti- and Private Applications of Video Surveillance and Bio- nized for its potential to infringe civil liberties. Research metric Technologies, CRB-02-006, California Research has concentrated on trying to fit its outputs into a matrix to Bureau, Sacramento, 2002. make sense of the problems with recorded crime figures and In a survey of CCTV and biometric security systems overlap with other crime reduction measures, resulting in domestically and internationally, the researchers found that inadequate research into the activities and outputs of camera an increasing number of cities, schools, transit districts and control rooms. As a result, public-space cameras systems public housing are deploying surveillance systems. An ear- now participate in activities than their original task of assist- lier (1997) survey found that only 13 city police departments ing the police. in the country used surveillance systems, primarily to moni- tor pedestrian traffic in downtown and residential districts, Maier, P. and J. Malone, TCRP Synthesis 38: Electronic but that since then, technological advances, declining costs, Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles: A Synthesis of and heightened security concerns following the 9/11 attacks Transit Practices, Transportation Research Board, National have led to rapid diffusion of both surveillance and biomet- Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2001. ric technologies. Also discusses applications and legal issues Based on questionnaire data, a literature review, and case surrounding the technologies. studies, this report reviews existing and emerging CCTV technologies for the transit environment. Considerable tech- Nieto, M., Public Video Surveillance: Is It an Effective nical information is presented; the descriptions of systems Crime Prevention Tool? CRB-97-005, California Research and terminology are particularly useful for those with little Bureau, Sacramento, June 1997. knowledge of the technical aspects and requirements of This report examines uses of surveillance by public and installing video systems. private entities to prevent and discourage crime, including law enforcement practices, conditions which warrant video Mller, C. and D. Boos, Zurich Main Railway Station: A surveillance, legal and constitutional implications of using Typology of Public CCTV Systems, Surveillance & Society, video surveillance, and tentative conclusions on whether the Vol. 2, No. 2 & 3, 2004, pp. 161176. technology has benefited public housing, transit authorities, This article presents a case study of the use of CCTV and educational institutions. at the Zurich railroad station, the largest in Switzerland, as it is used by passengers, shoppers, and those defined as Plant, J.F. and R.R. Young, Securing and Protecting Amer- trespassers. ica's Railroad System: U.S. Railroad and Opportunities for Terrorist Threats. A Report Prepared For Citizens For Rail Myhre, M.L. and F. Rosso, Designing for Security in Safety, Inc., The Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, Météor: A Projected New Métro Line in Paris, in Preventing June 2007. Mass Transit Crime, Ronald V. Clarke, Ed., Criminal Justice Suggests ways public policy and rail operations can be Press, Monsey, N.Y., 1996, pp. 199216. better directed to meet the challenges of terrorist activity. This article compares security features in the plan for One of the few studies that looks at both passenger and Météor, the new Paris Métro line, with those of the existing freight rail, recommendations include congressional action system and with WMATA and the Hong Kong subway; it to pass comprehensive rail security legislation and to estab- found that Météor included a wider range of SCP measures lish a national commission on rail security. Other recom- than existing Métros, WMATA, or Hong Kong, and that its mendations include better coordination among the many law security features were consistent with principles of CPTED. enforcement agencies involved in rail protection, enhanced
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72 training for railroad employees, and greater emphasis on the Research in conjunction with the Police Institute-Rutgers, threats and liability issues presented by trespassers. Newark, N.J., 2006. Based on conference presentations in 2005 that brought Platt, J.F., ed., Handbook of Transportation Policy and together law enforcement officials to share best practices Administration, Jeremy F. Platt, Ed., CRC Press, Boca on transit security, this collection includes material from Raton, Fla., 2007. presenters Sir Ian Johnston, Chief Constable of the British This 32-chapter handbook covers a wide range of issues Transport Police; Jeroen Weimar, Director of Policing and facing transit managers. Section 5 includes six chapters on Enforcement for the London Transport System; and officials security and protection of transit systems. Of these, two from NJT Police, Amtrak, the PANY&NJ, and DHS. discuss the roles of the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security in rail security, and one Sanderson, C., A. Bigdeli, T.S., S. Chen, E. Berglund, and considers issues facing transit managers since the Madrid B.C. Lovell, Intelligent CCTV for Mass Transport Security: and London transit system terrorist bombings. Challenges and Opportunities for Video and Face Process- ing, Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Anal- Polzin, S.E., Security Considerations in Transportation ysis, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007, pp. 3041. Planning (A White Paper for Southern Transportation Cen- As a result of the number of cameras installed, many ter), Center for Urban Transportation Research, University sites have abandoned human monitoring and only record of South Florida, Tampa, no year. for investigations. A sought-after capability is "face in the This report explores the implications of enhanced secu- crowd" recognition in public spaces, including transit cen- rity concerns on transportation planning with the expec- ters. This paper evaluates approaches to face recognition, tation that security concerns will significantly influence proposes adaptations and modifications, and discusses legal how transportation facilities and services are provided. It challenges surrounding its implementation. is intended to foster discussion and facilitate accommodat- ing issues such as enhanced environmental concern, social Schulz, D.M. and S. Gilbert, Developing Strategies to Fight equity, evolving technologies and multimodal consider- Crime and Fear, The Police Chief, July 1995, pp. 2027. ations, the inclusion of demand management strategies, and Based on a TRB study into deployment of uniformed various other new goals and considerations. and plainclothes officers on transit properties, this article provides an overview of policing techniques and strategies Ratcliffe, J., Problem-Oriented Guides for Police: Video employed by a number of large and small transit agencies. Surveillance of Public Places, Response Guides Series No. 4, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Scott, D., Policing Regional Mass Transit: The SEPTA Sys- Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 2006. tem, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 7, July A primer on the use of video as a problem-oriented polic- 2009, 10 pp., accessed online. ing response to crime problems; most of the evaluations are This case study, written for law enforcement professionals, from Great Britain but there is a description of cameras out- outlines the steps taken by SEPTA to establish policies to maxi- side the central train station in Oslo, Norway, to combat drug mum safety and security of its passengers, employees, and the activity. public and to protect the transit agency from loss or damage. Redmon, J., Atlanta Seeks to Add 500 Surveillance Cam- Smith, M.J., Addressing the Security Needs of Women Pas- eras, The Atlanta-Journal Constitution, Oct. 24, 2009, n.p., sengers on Public Transport, Security Journal, Vol. 21, 2008, accessed online. pp.117133. City officials were seeking $13.7 million in federal funds This article presents a framework for analyzing security for cameras after a series of high-profile crimes; not tran- needs of women passengers, summarizing research in four sit-specific but addresses issues that are relevant to transit areas: (1) women's reported victimization, (2) calculating systems. the risk of being a crime victim, (3) the rationality of women s fears of crime and disorder, and (4) the need for crime pre- Roman, A., Securing Rail Systems from the Ground Up, vention measures to address these security-related issues. Metro Magazine, Apr. 2009, pp. 4043. The "whole journey" approach highlights aspects of the trip This article provides a brief review of how Austin's Capi- for women that require special attention. tal Metro and Phoenix-based Valley Metro were able to inte- grate CPTED and surveillance into their systems beginning Track and Tunnel Intrusion Detection: White Paper, Vidient with their initial design phases. Systems, Inc., Santa Clara, Calif., 2009. Report on the technological capabilities required to pro- Sahm, C., Hard Won Lessons: Transit Security. New York: vide track and tunnel intrusion detection, including immedi- Safe Cities Project, The Manhattan Institute for Policy ate notification and assessment and full-time protection.
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73 Zurawski, N. and S. Czerwinski, Crime, Maps and Meaning: that perception of "dangerous spaces" has resulted in CCTV Views from a Survey on Safety and CCTV in Germany, Sur- being seen as suitable for safeguarding crime hot spots. veillance & Society, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008, pp. 5172. Although the authors reject the expansion of CCTV, they After examining what people knew about video technol- view it as a way to counter crime in particular settings. ogy and what meaning they ascribed to it, this article found