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8 lar systems, by examining where the technology is professionals. It includes a variety of government reports employed, including in stations, onboard vehicles, and and studies undertaken on behalf of an array of agencies. along ROWs. Technical materials published by surveillance system ven- To examine agencies' experiences on how successful dors were reviewed, as were media announcements from the technology is for crime/vandalism prevention; fare a variety of transit agencies that are upgrading their video collection/dispute mediation; other complaint resolu- surveillance systems. In recognition of the growing atten- tion; accident investigation; employee monitoring, or tion being paid to video analytics (often termed "smart" or other uses. "intelligent" video), articles in this area were also reviewed. To summarize findings on a number of relevant legal The literature review is presented as an annotated bibliog- issues, including archiving of and employee access to raphy following the conclusion, chapter six. It summarizes images/records, whether patrons are notified of the the publications and documents that seemed most relevant presence of surveillance, and policies for public access to synthesis readers and that were readily available online or to images/records. from the publishers. To summarize funding sources for surveillance systems. Questionnaire Survey The synthesis draws on the findings of earlier TCRP syn- A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to 58 agen- theses, particularly Synthesis 38 (Maier and Malone 2001) cies, including established rail systems and those operating and Synthesis 80 (Nakanishi 2009) as well as Improving for only a few years or about to enter revenue service. The Transit Security (Needle and Cobb 1997) and Guidelines for systems, a number of which are multimodal, varied widely in the Effective Use of Uniformed Transit Police and Security size and scope relating to numbers of passengers and numbers Personnel (Interactive Elements Inc. 1997). However, the of railcars and stations. (Appendixes A and B contain a copy study differs substantially from these earlier works because of the questionnaire and a list of the responding agencies.) it focuses solely on passenger rail transit agencies and it describes uses of surveillance technologies beyond crime Questionnaires were sent primarily to police/security and terrorism. Similar to the other studies, though, a major and/or safety directors by means of a group email from focus of this synthesis is to provide transit agencies with a TRB. Subsequent emails were sent individually by the proj- current snapshot of how passenger rail systems use surveil- ect's authors. Throughout the questionnaire phase, names of lance systems and to help agencies decide how and where to recipients were updated as information was received from employ this expanding technology. the transit systems to ensure a maximum level of partici- pation. Eliminating duplications where questionnaires were sent to an agency's security manager as well as to the local METHODOLOGY AND SCOPE police who patrol the system resulted in a total population of 58 individual agencies; responses were received from The following methods were employed to achieve the mul- 43, resulting in a response rate of 73%. The percentage of tiple aims of the synthesis: respondents is well in excess of the acceptable range and reflects the largest collection of data solely from passenger Reviewing articles in academic and popular jour- rail agencies on issues pertaining to the use of electronic nals and government and transit-specific studies and video surveillance. reports. The most relevant can be found in the litera- ture review. Investigating the introduction of video surveillance as REPORT ORGANIZATION a law enforcement tool in transit systems and its cur- rent uses in such noncriminal enforcement areas as Following the summary, chapter one introduces the project claims adjustment, risk assessment and management, and its objectives and explains its methodology, scope, and employee safety, and integrity control. organization. Chapter two provides a history of the use of Developing, distributing, and analyzing the results of video surveillance in transit operations, its role in crime pre- a questionnaire survey sent to 58 U.S. passenger rail vention and detection, and its role in risk management and transit agencies of varying sizes and modes. internal control systems. Chapters three and four are based Conducting case studies. on the questionnaire responses; chapter three documents how systems are employing video surveillance, and chapter Literature Review four discusses administrative considerations that make up a coherent video surveillance policy, as well as describing The literature review of relevant materials includes articles funding sources for purchasing and upgrading existing sys- in academic journals and in popular magazines written for tems. Chapter five contains case studies of how individual law enforcement/security, safety, risk management, and IT agencies are using their video surveillance systems. Finally,

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9 chapter six provides conclusions based on the findings of references, an annotated bibliography, and appendixes that the case studies and questionnaire responses, and presents include the survey questionnaire and a list of participating items for further research. These chapters are followed by transit agencies.