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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 90 Video Surveillance Uses by Rail Transit Agencies Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice
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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTE CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul MEMBERS Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg James Crites Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond John K. Duval Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Beverly Municipal Airport Virginia, Charlottesville Kitty Freidheim Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Freidheim Consulting Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Jacksonville Aviation Authority Randell H. Iwasaki, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Tom Jensen Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City National Safe Skies Alliance Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Catherine M. Lang Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Federal Aviation Administration Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Hagerstown Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., Richard Tucker Pitt Meadows, BC Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austi Sabrina Johnson Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Air Transport Association of America Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, G Robert E. Skinner, Jr. George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Transportation Research Board University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.D Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of October 2009.
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 90 Video Surveillance Uses by Rail Transit Agencies A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultants DOROTHY MOSES SCHULZ and SUSAN GILBERT Interactive Elements, Inc. New York, NY S ubscriber C ategories Public Transportation · Safety and Human Factors · Security and Emergencies Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 90 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and Project J-7, Topic SA-24 energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4880 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-14340-0 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to Library of Congress Control Number 2011925672 serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and © 2011 Transportation Research Board to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administra- used herein. tion (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Associa- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- tion (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the mate- successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, under- rial will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular prod- of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of uct, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appro- ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and priate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced administrative practices. material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act NOTICE of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Tran- organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting through sit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Develop- Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the ment Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, or the als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by nical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Govern- other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without ing Board of the National Research Council. compensation. The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. Published reports of the The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs DWIGHT A. FERRELL CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Research Programs GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications DEBRA W. ALEXANDER Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF DONNA DeMARTINO JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and MARK W. FUHRMANN Special Programs Metro Transit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and ROBERT H. IRWIN Synthesis Studies Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer JEANNE KREIG DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant PAUL J. LARROUSSE DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate DAVID A. LEE Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT FRANK T. MARTIN TOPIC PANEL PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL JOEDY W. CAMBRIDGE, Transportation Research Board BRADFORD J. MILLER DWIGHT A. FERRELL, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority Authority, Atlanta, GA HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III RUFUS FRANCIS, Sacramento Regional Transit District Kitsap Transit, Bremerton, WA FRANK MONDELLO, Metropolitan Transportation FRANK TOBEY Authority-- New York City Transit First Transit, Inc., Moscow, TN THOMAS STEPHEN O'CONNER, STI--Global Collaborative, PAM WARD Ellicott City, MD Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA DEBORAH SAPPER, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, FL SHELDON C. SHAW, Utah Transit Authority, Midvale FTA LIAISON DAVID WEBB, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit LISA COLBERT Authority Federal Transit Administration ROY WEI SHUN CHEN, Federal Transit Authority (Liaison) MICHAEL BALTES RICHARD GERHART, Federal Transit Authority (Liaison) Federal Transit Administration ALAN RAO, USDOT-RITA Volpe Center, Cambridge, MA (Liaison) TRB LIAISON JENNIFER A. ROSALES Transportation Research Board PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board Cover figure: A Metro Valley Rail train traveling over the Tempe Town Lake Bridge that spans the Tempe, Arizona, Town Lake (Courtesy: Metro Valley Rail, Phoenix, AZ).
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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Coopera- tive Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE The purpose of this synthesis was to document the current use of electronic video surveil- lance technology solely by passenger rail agencies, considering the totality of its use and By Donna L. Vlasak including onboard railcars, as well as its right-of-way. It was accomplished by means of a Senior Program Officer literature review, transit agency survey, and case studies. Results describe administrative Transportation policies in place surrounding the monitoring of video images either in real time or for post- Research Board event analysis, policies surrounding archiving and storing images and employee access to them, other public agencies (primarily police) and the general public, as well as funding sources for installation of new or upgrading of existing video surveillance systems. Forty-three completed surveys were received from 58 rail transit agencies, a response ratio of 73%. Five case studies across a geographic range of locations (California, Arizona, Texas, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania) offer additional details on a variety of modes, dif- ferent security configurations (transit police or reliance on local agencies), and systems upgrades to include technologies that other agencies are likely to be considering, including lessons learned. Dr. Dorothy Moses Schulz and Susan Gilbert, Interactive Elements, New York, N.Y., collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Project Background and Objectives, 7 Methodology and Scope, 8 Report Organization, 8 10 CHAPTER TWO DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC VIDEO SURVEILLANCE IN TRANSIT SYSTEMS History of Electronic Video Surveillance in Transit, 10 Video Surveillance and Risk Management, 11 Expanding the Definition of Risk, 13 The London Underground's Influence on Transit Surveillance Systems, 15 Use of Surveillance by Transit Systems Worldwide, 16 Use of Video Surveillance by Canadian Transit Systems, 19 Video Surveillance and Public Perceptions of Safety and Security, 21 24 CHAPTER THREE HOW TRANSIT AGENCIES USE VIDEO SURVEILLANCE Introduction, 24 Stations, Station Platforms, and Shelters, 25 Onboard Railcars, 27 Parking Facilities, 28 Storage Yards, Other Yards, and Administrative Areas, 30 Right-of-Way Surveillance, 31 34 CHAPTER FOUR ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF ELECTRONIC VIDEO SURVEILLANCE Introduction, 34 Deciding Where to Install Video Surveillance, 34 Funding Video Surveillance Systems, 36 Perceived Effectiveness of Video Surveillance, 38 Monitoring Video Cameras--When and by Whom, 38 Video Surveillance System Features, 39 Video Analytics, 39 Archiving, Retaining and Accessing Surveillance Images, 41 Video Surveillance as a Forensic Tool, 41 Patron and Employee Awareness and Perceptions of Video Surveillance, 42 44 CHAPTER FIVE CASE STUDIES Introduction, 44 Case Study 1 Altamont Commuter Express, San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission, California, 44 Case Study 2 Metro Transit, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 46 Case Study 3 Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, Texas, 49 Case Study 4 Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 51 Case Study 5 Valley Metro Rail, Phoenix, Arizona, 54 57 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS 61 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
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62 GLOSSARY 64 REFERENCES 68 LITERATURE REVIEW [ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY] 74 APPENDIX A SYNTHESIS QUESTIONNAIRE 79 APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONDENTS