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33 Table 3-8. Cost information for the five most common credential combinations. Total Credential Credential Combination Individual Credential Costs Combination Costs CDL-HME and TWIC $152.22a + $132.50 $284.72 CDL-HME, TWIC, and FAST $152.22a + $132.50 + $50 $334.72 CDL-HME, TWIC, FAST, and U.S. Passport $152.22a + $132.50 + $50 + $100 $434.72 CDL-HME, TWIC, and SIDA $152.22a + $132.50 + $91.33b $376.05 TWIC and MMC $132.50 + $100.00 $232.50 Notes: a Represents the mean combined CDL-HME stated cost ($61.96) and threat assessment fee ($90.26). b Represents an average of identified SIDA fees (see Appendix F.) All interviewees also held TWIC cards. The total time to the credential. All noted that they obtained their credentials on obtain the TWIC ranged from 2 to 6 weeks and, on average, personal time. individuals spent 30 minutes completing the application. Assuming the minimum credential, application, and travel Three of the respondents indicated that they traveled 15 to costs incurred by the individuals interviewed and their com- 20 minutes to pick up their TWIC cards; however, one individ- panies, the minimum average cost ranges from $375.63 (CDL- ual reported a shorter time and one noted that it was a 2-hour HME, TWIC, U.S. passport) to $468.00 (CDL-HME, TWIC, trip each way. On average, individuals paid $168 for the TWIC, local authority credential). Conversely, assuming the maxi- a cost which all reported as being reimbursed. Additionally, mum credential, application, and travel costs incurred by the individuals noted concern with the cost of renewing a creden- individuals interviewed and their companies, the maximum tial, the duration of validity for a credential (especially for average cost ranges from $726.75 (CDL-HME, TWIC, U.S. drivers with clean driving records), and that individuals should passport) to $825.50 (CDL-HME, TWIC, local authority not wait until the last minute to apply. credential). Four of the interviewees noted that they held U.S. passports. On average, it took 3 weeks for the passport to arrive with the Regulatory Analysis application completion time being, on average, 30 minutes. Only one individual traveled to pick up the passport while the The events of September 11, 2001, brought about renewed others had the passports mailed to their homes. The average concerns regarding security and safety in the transport of haz- cost of the passport was $101.25 and all indicated that they ardous materials across all modes. In response, Homeland were reimbursed this cost. Security Presidential Directive 12 (HSPD 12), dated August 27, One individual held a credential that was issued by a local 2004, "Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Fed- authority (in this case, a police department). The credential eral Employees and Contractors," was implemented. HSPD 12 required an application, a background check, and a $200 fee, called for a single federal employee ID card. For all transporta- which the company did not reimburse. The total time to obtain tion modes, the principal policy objectives that supported the the credential was 2 to 3 days. The time to complete the appli- issuance of HazMat credentials were cation was negligible (i.e., "quick") and required 15 miles travel to the police station to pick up the credential. Comments To ensure the trustworthiness of the passengers and the regarding this credential were similar to the comments made cargo flowing through the system; regarding this same credential in the Web-based survey. The To ensure the trustworthiness of the transportation workers purpose of this credential is perceived as being a revenue tool who operate and service the vehicles, assist the passengers, for the local authority versus a means of ensuring safety or or handle the cargo; security. To ensure the trustworthiness of the private companies that Based on the information above, the shortest amount of operate in the system, such as the carriers, shippers, agents, time it took to complete an application was 15 minutes and and brokers; and, the longest it took to complete the application was 1 day. To establish a perimeter of security around transportation Using an hourly wage of $25.50 (assuming a working year of facilities and vehicles in operation. 2,080 hours), the shortest amount of lost work time due to completing the application converts to a loss of $6.38 in pay, Additionally, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (Pub. L. while the longest amount of lost work time due to completing 107-56) strengthened security for homeland defense against the application equals a loss of $255.50 in pay. However, none terrorism purposes. Of interest to this analysis is Section 1012 of the individuals indicated that they lost a day's work to obtain of Pub. L. 107-56, which places increased limitations on the