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31 APPENDIX B Ranking of Bird Species or Groups as to Relative Hazard to Aircraft in Airport Environments Based on a Composite Rank RANKING OF 66 BIRD SPECIES OR GROUPS (1 = MOST HAZARDOUS) AS TO RELATIVE HAZARD TO AIRCRAFT IN AIRPORT ENVIRONMENTS [ 500 FT (152 M) ABOVE GROUND LEVEL) BASED ON A COMPOSITE RANK Total Strikes Composite Relative Species1 Reported Rank Hazard Score Other geese 20 1 100 Other ducks 77 2 78 Canada goose (Branta canadensis) 776 2 76 Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) 159 2 73 Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) 29 5 72 Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrorax auritis) 24 5 71 Brown pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) 31 7 66 Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) 66 8 61 Wild turkey (Melagris gallopavo) 38 9 65 Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) 27 9 64 Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) 74 11 59 Great black-backed gull (L. marinus) 20 12 53 Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) 77 13 53 Great blue heron (Ardea herodius) 132 14 51 Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) 45 15 47 Herring gull (L. argentatus) 291 16 47 Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) 28 17 46 Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 221 18 47 Great egret (Ardea alba) 24 19 45 Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 534 20 42 California gull (L. californicus) 23 21 37 Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) 112 22 37 Ring-billed gull (L. delawarensis) 362 23 37 Franklin's gull (Leucophaeus pipixcani) 26 23 31 Rock dove (Columba livia) 1,035 25 33 Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) 24 26 32 Other hawks 34 27 30 Laughing gull (L. atricilla) 106 28 29 Mew gull (L. canus) 21 29 31 Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) 44 29 23 Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) 29 31 30 Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) 32 31 21 Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) 58 33 19 American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) 141 34 19 Black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) 20 35 25 Spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) 46 35 16 Barn owl (Tyto alba) 174 37 18 Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) 1,313 38 17 Blackbirds 976 39 14 European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) 1,408 40 14 Continued on p. 32

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32 Continued from p. 31 Total Strikes Composite Relative Species1 Reported Rank Hazard Score Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous) 553 41 11 American kestrel (Falco sparverius) 536 42 9 Zebra dove (Geopelia striata) 54 42 9 Common myna (Acridotheres tristis) 21 44 9 Snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) 84 45 16 Bank swallow (Riparia riparia) 49 45 10 Meadowlarks 361 47 8 Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris) 372 48 7 Sparrows 1,799 49 7 Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus) 24 50 8 American robin (Turdus migratorius) 159 51 9 Burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) 20 52 5 Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) 486 53 3 Wrens 28 54 6 Terns 45 55 4 Finches 55 56 7 Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) 38 57 2 Chimney swift (Hirundo pelagica) 34 58 5 Pacific golden-plover (Pluvialis apricaria) 204 58 4 Purple martin (Progne subis) 57 58 3 Western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) 31 61 5 Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) 164 62 2 Nutmeg mannikin (Lonchura punctulata) 26 63 3 Chestnut manikin (Lonchura malacca) 28 64 0 Wood warblers 30 65 3 Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) 109 65 2 The composite rank reflects three variables: (1) the percentage of total strikes (for that species/group) that caused some type of damage to the aircraft, (2) the percentage of total strikes that caused substantial damage to the aircraft, and (3) the percentage of total strikes that caused an effect on flight (EOF). See Dolbeer et al. (2000) for definitions of damage and EOF. Strike data are from the FAA National Wildlife Strike Database. Source: Travis DeVault, USDA/APHIS/WS Ohio field station, unpublished data. 1 Other geese = snow goose (Anser caerulescens), brant (Branta bernicla), greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons); other ducks = 23 species in the family Anatidae; other hawks = Cooper's hawk (Accipter cooperii), sharp-shinned hawk (A. striatus), rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus), red-shouldered hawk (B. lineatus), broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus), ferruginous hawk (B. regalis); blackbirds = red- winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula); meadowlarks = eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sparrows = 19 species in the family Emberizidae; wrens = house wren (Troglodytes aedon), Carolina wren (Throthorus ludovicianus), marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris); terns = common tern (Sterna hirundo), arctic tern (S. vittata), Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia), least tern (Sternula albifrons), fairy tern (Sternula nereis); finches = house finch (Caprodacus mexicanus), American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis); wood warblers = 13 species in the family Parulidae.

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