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4 CFR, part 139)] to make certain the airport environment, and/or hazing. We did not limit our review to studies con- including areas near the airport, is safe. ducted within the airport environment because much of the research in this arena has involved captive studies and field Airport managers can use five basic strategies to manage studies in agriculture settings. We used numerous databases hazardous wildlife at or near the airport (from Cleary and to find primary and secondary literature, including Google Dickey 2010): Scholar, DigitalCommons at University of NebraskaLin- coln, ScopusTM, and numerous conference proceedings data- 1. Repelling techniques: Use of various audio, visual, bases (e.g., Vertebrate Pest Conference). We searched for or chemical repellents to harass and repel problem the following terms in article abstracts and keywords: deter- wildlife. rents, hazing, harassment, repellents, damage management, airports, aviation, frightening devices, and numerous com- 2. Habitat modification: Elimination or reduction of binations of the aforementioned. We supplemented searches food, water, or shelter attractive to wildlife at or near by examining bibliographies of articles for additional refer- the airport. ences. Much of the published literature on the subjects was found in the secondary literature. 3. Exclusion: Use of physical barriers to stop wildlife from gaining access to food, water, or shelter at or Guiding Principles of Bird Damage Management near the airport. Bird management at airports is best considered an adap- 4. Population management: Reduction or elimination of tive process of deterrence where species composition and wildlife populations that are posing a hazard to aircraft behavior can be expected to change during the day, between at or near the airport by either capturing (live capture seasons, and across years, even when techniques in this syn- and relocation) or killing the problem animals. thesis are actively employed. Many bird species habituate to deterrent techniques and will return to the area, particularly 5. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) of potential wildlife if the area is attractive to them. Consequently, two critical hazards. questions to ask are "Why are they present?" and "Are they occasional or habitual users of areas on and near the air- This synthesis emphasizes numbers 1 and 3; however, the port?" Figure 1 depicts a gradient of bird activities along a repellent techniques cannot be considered in isolation and continuum of fidelity or attractiveness to a particular site. typically are applied in conjunction with one or more of the Essentially, as site fidelity increases, difficulty in moving the other strategies. birds will similarly increase. Matching the type of control technique with the type of bird activity will improve chances METHODOLOGY FOR SYNTHESIS of success. Additionally, the more frequently a bird occupies an airport without negative consequences such as control Literature Search methods, irrespective of degree of site fidelity, the more dif- ficult it will be to disperse the bird. Consequently, effective We reviewed the literature for papers that included infor- management is management highly responsive to dispersing mation regarding bird deterrents, repellents, harassment, birds from airports as soon as they are detected. FIGURE 1 Gradient of bird activities in increasing order of site fidelity and resistance to control techniques (Source : Adapted from Steve Osmek, SEA Airport).