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5 CHAPTER TWO INTEGRATIVE DAMAGE MANAGEMENT To maximize reduction of bird use of airports or other areas, cessful in dispersing Canada geese in urban and suburban integrated approaches employing multiple techniques are communities (Holevinski et al. 2007). A combination of generally more successful and more widely used than indi- lasers, distress calls, and pyrotechnics was 98% effective vidual techniques (Conover 2002). In addition to harass- in reducing crow abundance at urban roosts (Chipman et ment, deterrent, and exclusion techniques, other categories al. 2008). Lethal control can also enhance the efficacy of of bird damage management including habitat management harassment and deterrent techniques at airports (Dolbeer et and lethal control must be implemented when appropriate. al. 1993). There are several examples (e.g., Montoney and Boggs 1995; Belant 1997; Tobin 1998) of integrated approaches having Although integration of multiple deterrent, harassment, improved effectiveness over single techniques. Mott and and repellent techniques can likely reduce bird use of air- Timbrook (1988) demonstrated greater reductions in goose ports more than any single technique, habitat within the abundance at campgrounds when incorporating goose alarm airport and surrounding landscape must also be considered. and distress calls with pyrotechnics. Waterfowl use of ponds Following distribution theory, as habitat suitability on and was reduced when motion-activated frightening devices adjacent to the airport increases, use of this habitat by birds were integrated with a chemical repellent (Stevens et al. and other wildlife at the individual and population level will 2000). An integrated approach including harassment tech- also increase. In turn, reductions in habitat suitability would niques and public education was effective in reducing goose be expected to result in reduced bird and other wildlife use. abundance and the number of nuisance complaints (Preusser As habitat becomes less suitable, the potential for enhanced et al. 2008). Use of multiple hazing techniques, particularly effectiveness of deterrent, harassment, and repellent tech- those that included the use of border collies, was most suc- niques should increase.