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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 23 Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on Sponsored by the Federal and Near Airports Aviation Administration A Synthesis of Airport Practice

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 23 Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice Consultants JERROLD L. BELANT and JAMES A. MARTIN Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Mississippi State University S ubscriber C ategories Aviation Environment Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 23 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- Project 11-03, Topic S04-05 tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international ISSN 1935-9187 commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system connects ISBN 978-0-309-14337-0 with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility Library of Congress Control Number 2011923990 for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most air- 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. ports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principle means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who to meet demands placed on it. own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: used herein. Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the success- product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit material in the document for educational and not-for-profit uses will Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes research and give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, from CRP. planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. NOTICE The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Air- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP port Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transporta- Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. tion Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of Department of Transportation with representation from airport operat- the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing ing agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance such as the Airports Council InternationalNorth America (ACI-NA), and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National National Research Council. Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Trans- The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this port Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical com- professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, mittee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Admin- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsi- istration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. bilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodi- committee according to procedures established and monitored by the cally but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Govern- the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by ing Board of the National Research Council. identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, and expected products. the National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Adminis- Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, tration (sponsor of the ACRP) do not endorse products or manufac- appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and turers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the professionals, the intended users of the research products. The pan- project reporting. els prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contrac- tors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of Published reports of the the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. are available from: Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service Business Office providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research 500 Fifth Street NW reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and Washington, DC 20001 other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that and can be ordered through the Internet at: results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 1103 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative JULIE KENFIELD, Research Programs Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer JOSEPH J. BROWN-SNELL, Program Associate MEMBERS EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications RANDALL P. BURDETTE Virginia Department of Aviation SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Union Consulting, Inc. Special Programs LINDA HOWARD JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Bastrop, Texas Synthesis Studies ARLYN PURCELL GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer Port Authority of New York and New Jersey DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor BURR STEWART CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant Seattle, Washington DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate FAA LIAISON PAUL DEVOTI TOPIC PANEL TRAVIS L. DEVAULT, USDA/APHIS/WS/NWRC, Sandusky, OH ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON LAURA FRANCOEUR, Port Authority of New York and A.J. MULDOON New Jersey CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION EDWIN E. HERRICKS, University of Illinois, JOHN L. COLLINS UrbanaChampaign GARY R. NESS, North Dakota Aeronautics Director (Retired) STEVEN OSMEK, Port of SeattleSeattle-Tacoma TRB LIAISON International Airport CHRISTINE GERENCHER JOHN OSTROM, Metropolitan Airports Commission-- MinneapolisSt. Paul International Airport MIKE SMITH, Salt Lake City International Airport JOHN WELLER, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) Cover figure: Bird dispersal at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (courtesy: Seattle-Tacoma International Airport).

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FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coop- erative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis provides airport managers and biologists with a document that reviews tech- niques for reducing bird collisions with aircraft and their relative effectiveness. By Gail R. Staba Information used in this study was acquired through a review of the literature and inter- Senior Program Officer views with airport operators and industry experts. Transportation Jerrold L. Belant and James A. Martin, Mississippi State University, collected and Research Board synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Birds and Aircraft: Understanding the Interaction, 3 Methodology for Synthesis, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO INTEGRATIVE DAMAGE MANAGEMENT 6 CHAPTER THREE PRINCIPLES OF AVIAN ECOLOGY AND BIOLOGY Bird Movements and Space Use, 6 Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques, 7 Senses, 8 10 CHAPTER FOUR HARASSMENT, REPELLENT, AND DETERRENT TECHNIQUES Auditory Deterrents, 10 Visual Repellents, 12 Chemical Repellents, 16 Exclusion Methods, 17 20 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND INFORMATION NEEDS 21 REFERENCES 30 APPENDIX A SPECIES LIST 31 APPENDIX B RANKING OF BIRD SPECIES OR GROUPS AS TO RELATIVE HAZARD TO AIRCRAFT IN AIRPORT ENVIRONMENTS BASED ON A COMPOSITE RANK

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