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STRATEGIES AND FINANCING OPPORTUNITIES FOR AIRPORT ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS SUMMARY The time when an airport's environmental responsibilities consisted of preparing environ- mental review documents for airport construction projects and mitigating the impacts has long since passed. Today's additional environmental responsibilities bring with them increased financial burdens. Increasingly, the environmental responsibilities of airports are extending beyond simple mitigation of negative environmental impacts. At federal, state, and local levels airports are facing greater expectations to be environmentally proactive by implementing sustainable prac- tices in the operation, maintenance, and development of their facilities and even to anticipate and prepare for detrimental environmental events. In many cases, anticipation and preparation may be more cost-effective than responding to an adverse environmental event after it has occurred. Today, an airport's environmental responsibilities can include (but are not limited to) the following: Reducing the impacts of storm water runoff on water quality and quantity. Reducing pollutants in storm water runoff. Reducing the emission of pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act. Reducing green house gas emissions and energy consumption. Cleanup and redevelopment of abandoned brownfield sites on airport property. Prevention and cleanup of releases from petroleum storage tanks. Preservation of significant historic structures on airport property. Training airport staff and tenants in proper environmental practices. The Airport Improvement Program (AIP) administered by the FAA is a well-established and well-known funding source for airports. However, except for the Voluntary Airport Low Emission program, AIP funding for environmental initiatives focuses on the environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), including mitigation measures. AIP funds are also used to help finance airport noise compatibility initiatives such as residential soundproofing and acquisition of noise-sensitive properties. Projects to comply with certain federal environmental laws aside from NEPA are also eligible. Many states have environmental requirements separate from federal requirements. To the extent these requirements differ from federal requirements, AIP funding cannot be used for compliance. Although airports are familiar with FAA funding programs and complementary state air- port funding programs other, less-known financing opportunities are available at the federal and state levels. Funding support from nonprofits and even for-profit entities may be avail- able as well. The purpose of this ACRP synthesis is to provide a comprehensive summary of those fund- ing opportunities, programs, and strategies available to airports to assist them in meeting their

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2 environmental responsibilities or undertaking environmental initiatives. For this report, the fed- eral website and individual state and territorial government websites were reviewed in addition to specific examples of successful pursuit of airport environmental funding. An effort was made to identify funding opportunities from private sources, including both for- profit and nonprofit entities. With respect to federal funding opportunities, the review produced the following results: The Bureau of Land Management has a variety of programs available, focusing on resource management in lands under its control. Other agencies, such as the Fish and Wildlife Service, focus on the conservation and restoration of resources. Some agencies, but not all, accept applications through Many of the general federal requirements applicable to the AIP also apply to other agen- cies' financial assistance programs. Although eligible for financial assistance in a variety of resource areas airports have his- torically focused on noise or emissions, aside from mitigation measures required by decisions under NEPA. With respect to state programs, the review produced the following results: All states offer financial assistance to help address one or more of the following resource issues: Air quality Greenhouse gasses and energy efficiency Brownfield cleanup and redevelopment Petroleum storage tank releases Water quality and storm water runoff Historic and cultural resources. Some states have their own airport grant programs that may be available for airport environmental initiatives. Many state programs are financed with federal funds; therefore, federal as well as state requirements apply. A comprehensive review of regional and local financial resources was not conducted. How- ever, experts and practitioners have suggested that individual regional or metropolitan plan- ning organizations may be another source of funding for environmental initiatives. Airport operators seeking financial support for such initiatives may want to explore the availability of funds administered by their local planning organizations. With respect to nongovernmental sources, the review produced the following results: Electric power utilities offer financial assistance programs in support of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy. Opportunities exist to partner with private for-profit companies on projects to expand the use of alternative fuel vehicles. The review process also resulted in identification of areas where further research might ben- efit the airport community.