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205 perform the energy audit and develop recommenda- facturer to obtain vehicles and a fuel/energy company tions without committing to the GESC. The airports for construction of the hydrogen fueling station. These then implement the recommendations on their own examples are discussed in more detail in the next chapter. or through traditional third-party contracting. Staff of one airport, Rolf Wold MinneapolisSt. Paul Inter- national Airport, pointed to (1) concerns about con- CHARITABLE FOUNDATIONS tractual issues in a GESC, in particular defining how The study located a limited number of charitable foundations energy savings would be calculated; and (2) the abil- that may provide grants for environmental initiatives. Because ity to get rebates directly from a utility, as reasons for of requirements to maintain the tax exempt status imposed on pursuing the initiatives without a GESC. foundations, it may be necessary for the airport to partner with Vehicle emissions--The study shows that local or a local nonprofit to qualify. Information on these foundations regional consortiums and regional planning agencies can is included in the matrix. The study also identified two websites play an important role in financing initiatives to reduce that provide listings of grant making foundations. The Founda- vehicle emissions. No instances were found in which tion Center at http://foundationcenter.org/ offers comprehen- these entities were themselves the source of funds. How- sive listings of foundations. A subscription is required to access ever, as conduits of funds, they can enhance an airport's some of the center's databases. However, listings of open RFPs access to other funding programs in a number of ways. are available at no charge at http://foundationcenter.org/pnd/ First, for the Clean Cities program, only certified coali- rfp/. The Norcross Wildlife Foundation includes in its website tions are eligible to apply, as reflected in Table 2. Sec- a link to general information on foundations. However, the ond, some programs may provide a higher priority to links appear to be oriented toward foundations, rather than applications submitted by consortiums, including mul- potential grantees. The link is http://www.norcrossws.org/ tiple fleet owners. Third, by assembling projects from Foundation%20Infor/Foundmain.html. multiple fleet owners, coalitions or other regional agen- cies can meet high minimum grant requirements for some programs, as noted in some of the case examples MATRIX OF NONGOVERNMENTAL in the next chapter. Finally, as the direct grant recipient, FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES these regional entities may perform some of the admin- istrative work in support of a grant normally performed Table 3 summarizes the information on nongovernmental by the airport if it were the grantee. Regional coalitions funding opportunities. A blank cell means that the relevant and planning agencies may also provide support for information was not readily available through the referenced ridesharing initiatives as another alternative to reducing websites. Listings of consortia or planning agency organi- vehicle emissions. zations are limited to those identified through searches of Another form of funding assistance for vehicle emis- other websites or through interviews. Clean Cities Certified sion reduction involves financial support by the private Coalitions are listed at http://www.afdc.energy.gov/cleancities/ sector. One airport--Dallas/Fort Worth International Air- progs/coalition_locations.php. port (DFW) was able to get a CNG refueling station built at no cost to the airport by a commercial CNG station The listings of utilities that offer financial incentives are operator. The CNG station serves the airport's CNG fleet, limited to those that were cited on state government websites and the station operator provides reduced rates to the and are presented for illustrative purposes. Similar programs airport. The station operator benefits because the station may be available from utilities in other states. As noted pre- is open to the public for retail sales. Another airport-- viously, the DSIRE website--www.dsireusa.org--provides John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK)--was able a complete listing of utilities providing financial incentives to implement a hydrogen fuel vehicle program at limited sorted by state. The charitable foundations identified during cost by working cooperatively with a vehicle manu- this study are also included in the matrix.