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28 ing airport operators, states, FAA regional offices, and FAA In addition to the noise compatibility and VALE programs, national headquarters. Projects can be identified as potential the following environmental initiatives are eligible for AIP candidates for grants as much as five years before an applica- funding: tion is submitted. It is rare for a project to be identified as a can- didate less than three years before an application [FAA, AIP Projects to comply with the Clean Air Act or the Fed- Handbook, Order 5100.38C (June 2005) at p. 167, par. 1000; eral Water Pollution Control Act. FAA, Airports Capital Improvement Plan Order 5100.39A Construction of drainage collection structures, and treat- (August 2000) at p. 1, sec. 5.5; FAA, Southwest Region Air- ment and discharge systems for aircraft deicing fluid. ports Division, Capital Planning: Developing Your Airport Preparation of documentation for environmental assess- Through Sound Planning Practices (February 2007)]. ments and environmental impact statements under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In contrast, as reflected in Table 1, most other federal Mitigation measures required in Findings of No Signif- agencies solicit grant applications through a RFP or similar icant Impact accompanying environmental assessments process. A notice or request for applications is published with and Records of Decision accompanying environmental a specific deadline for the filing of applications or proposals. impact statements. Failure to meet the deadline generally results in a rejection of Initial development of Environmental Management Sys- the request. tems. These systems are currently funded as a planning project [FAA Program Guidance Letter 07-06 (Septem- ber 24, 2007)]. SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL FUNDING PROGRAMS Bureau of Land Management This section provides an overview of various federal funding programs to support environmental initiatives for which air- The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has multiple pro- ports might qualify. It supplements the information contained grams that address vegetation issues. Grants are available to in Table 1. Programs are discussed by federal agency and pro- assist in eliminating noxious plants and other nonnative plant gram with the FAA opportunities included. species, and to reduce wildfire risk by eliminating wildfire fuel. These grants appear to be made available on a state-by- state basis, as noted in Table 1, and are primarily focused on Federal Aviation Administration western states. Some programs are open only to state agen- cies, whereas others are also available to local governments. The primary focus of environmental funding under AIP (in The grants are generally available only for areas within or terms of the dollar amounts of grants) is on noise compatibility. adjacent to lands under BLM control. In 2008, the last year for which it has published data, FAA awarded $285.6 million in grants for noise compatibility proj- The BLM also administers a challenge cost share grant ects (FAA 2010). Except for certain soundproofing projects program, which is also administered on a state-by-state basis at schools and medical facilities, projects to implement noise and is primarily focused on western states. Funding is pro- compatibility measures may be funded only after the airport vided for habitat improvement, noxious plant eradication, develops and the FAA approves a noise exposure map for the and support for cultural and historic resources. Information airport and a noise compatibility plan (49 USC 47504). available through grants.gov indicates that for some states, for example Utah, a cooperative agreement must be in place The VALE program is a recently implemented environ- for a community to qualify. Information for other states, for mental program under AIP, first authorized in Vision 100, example Idaho, does not reference a requirement for cooper- Pub. L. 108-176 (2003). Under VALE, the FAA makes grants ative agreements. of AIP funds to finance low-emission vehicles, refueling and recharging stations, gate electrification, and other airport air quality improvements. Only commercial service airports in Bureau of Reclamation nonattainment or maintenance areas under the Clean Air Act are eligible to apply, and projects must address the particular For the Bureau of Reclamation (BRL) a review of grants.gov emission(s) causing the nonattainment or maintenance status. identified one program potentially available for airport envi- Airports commit to keeping any new or retrofitted vehicles ronmental initiatives. Grants are provided to support water on the airport for their useful lives. For replacement vehicles, conservation, more efficient use of water, and energy effi- airports pledge not to operate the vehicles being replaced at the ciency in providing water resources. Funding is limited to local airport or at another nonattainment area. In FY 2010, accord- governmental units with water or power delivery authority. ing to the FAA's VALE website, the FAA issued 12 VALE Depending on the particular governmental structure, airports grants totaling $37.4 million: http://www.faa.gov/airports/ may qualify as components of such a governmental unit or environmental/vale/media/VALE_grant_summary.pdf. may be able to partner with the eligible local unit.