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8 charge, based on the potential revenue stream generated by Many states or communities may have nonprofit agencies the sale of recyclable materials. Depending on the type and similar to CALSTART that can function as the applicant for volume of materials, the airports may even generate net rev- Clean Cities or DERA funds. For Clean Cities funding the enue from the arrangement. applicant must be part of a Clean Cities coalition. The CRAA has partnered with both Clean Fuels Ohio and the Ohio Envi- ronmental Council to obtain funding for replacement and retro- Develop and Use Networks of Support fitting of vehicles to reduce emissions. for Environmental Initiatives A network focused on environmental initiatives can enhance Brownfields Cleanup and Restoration an airport's access to environmental funding. Internal networks can make it easier to identify projects or programs that may Grant and loan programs are available to local government qualify for such funding. Internal networks can also be used to entities to perform assessments and to conduct cleanups of generate organizational support for the projects and pursuit sites to prepare them for redevelopment. If the government of financial assistance. The internal network can also help does not own the site an agreement with the land owner will be ensure that projects are implemented and funding require- necessary. A plan for redeveloping the site is recommended, ments are met once financial assistance is awarded. An exam- because funding agencies typically consider the viability of ple of an internal network is the Massport Grant Committee. the redevelopment as one factor in providing assistance. External networks can also help identify funding sources and provide assistance and advice in developing successful pro- Conservation of Resources, Habitat, and Species posals. It may be advantageous to extend networks beyond the individuals or offices with specific environmental program Aside from grants related to water quality, grants for conser- responsibilities. For example, fines imposed on environmental vation of resources, habitat, and species appear to be most polluters in Massachusetts are available to fund environmen- closely associated with lands under federal control and lands tal initiatives. Other states may also dedicate environmental in agricultural use. However, for airports within or near lands fines or settlements and judgments in environmental litigation under federal control, funding is available to local govern- to environmental programs. By establishing contacts with state ments and government agencies. Implementation of a project environmental attorneys, airport staff may acquire improved in this category could raise questions of conformity to FAA access to information on fund availability. policies on protecting airspace and avoiding wildlife hazards. SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Electrical Energy--Emission Reduction This section outlines strategies and suggestions for accessing A wide variety of programs are available to assist airports in financial assistance related to specific environmental issues. It reducing nonrenewable energy consumption. Some programs is based on a review of the information from the funding pro- focus on enhancing efficiency to reduce consumption, others gram websites listed in the matrices and from the case exam- assist in developing renewable energy sources. Especially in ples. In some instances more detailed information is presented the area of reducing energy use, options involving public in the succeeding chapters on federal and state programs. private partnerships are available in addition to publicly funded grants or low-interest loans. Many utility compa- Air Quality nies offer rebates and other incentives for the installation of low energy consumption equipment and renewable energy For airports in Clean Air Act (42 USC 4701 et seq.) non- sources. Cogeneration agreements may also be available. attainment or maintenance areas, the FAA's VALE program The Database for State Incentives for Renewables & Effi- may be available. The FAA continues to encourage partici- ciency (DSIRE), accessible through http://www.dsireusa.org/, pation and to seek applicants. Projects to comply with the provides a comprehensive listing of financial assistance pro- requirements of the Clean Air Act are also eligible for AIP grams available by state. The listing includes utility programs. funding. However, the projects do not enjoy a high priority for Airports contemplating energy conservation or renewable funding unless they are associated with another project that energy initiatives can use the DSIRE website to identify poten- the FAA rates more highly, such as a safety or security proj- tial funding sources. ect. Other programs focus on vehicle emissions. The Clean Cities program and Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) Another potential funding strategy is derived from partic- program focus on alternative fuel and clean diesel retrofit or ipation in the Guaranteed Energy Savings Contract (GESC). replacement initiatives to reduce emissions. As noted, DERA The GESC concept is described in more detail in chapter five. has a $500,000 minimum grant requirement. It may be more The basic concept is that a third-party energy service com- practical for some airports to join together with other airports. pany (ESCO) conducts an energy assessment. Based on the Both programs give special consideration to applications sub- assessment it presents a plan to the facility owner and guar- mitted by consortia. antees a quantity of energy savings if its recommendations