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9 are implemented. The third party provides up-front financing action to stop and contain the release is also generally required. for the capital costs needed to implement the recommenda- Many programs require preliminary steps such as registering tions and is repaid through the guaranteed energy savings. tanks and payment of tank fees. Completing these steps would enable airports to expedite a funding request should a release occur. Historic and Cultural Resources Most states have loan or grant programs available to support Water Quality acquisition, preservation, and restoration of historic struc- tures. Such programs are open to local government entities. Funding is available in most states for water quality proj- For those airports with historic structures the programs may ects, including projects to address storm water runoff under provide a source of financing for preservation or rehabilita- Section 319 of the Clean Water Act. Funds are generally avail- tion. Most programs require a recipient to assume obligations able to local governments. However, priority is given to proj- to maintain the structure and provide for public access. The ects that provide broad-based watershed benefits and that costs associated with these obligations would offset the value address water bodies identified as priorities in state plans. of the assistance. Therefore, airports may enhance their access to funding by partnering with local water resource agencies or utilities. In some states, funding may also be available for cata- loguing and other documentation of historic sites. For air- A relatively recent strategy for water quality improvement ports that are required to conduct documentation efforts of (especially reduction of storm water run-off ) is pervious or historic sites as a condition for completing a development porous pavement. The principle of pervious pavement is that project this funding source may be available. storm water can be absorbed into the pavement, similar to the absorption of water by soil. By reducing the volume of storm water flowing off pavement into the water shed, the pervious Noise pavement also reduces the volume of pollutants flowing off the pavement. It is not clear at this time however that pervious The primary source of funding for noise compatibility proj- pavement has the strength and durability necessary for appli- ects continues to be the Noise Compatibility Program within cation in all airfield uses. AIP. With limited exceptions, discussed in more detail in chapter three, a FAA-approved noise exposure map and FAA-approved noise compatibility plan are required before Waste Reduction and Recycling FAA will make funding available. Measures typically funded within AIP include sound attenuation for structures or land Many states have financial assistance programs to support acquisition. recycling and other initiatives to reduce solid waste. In many cases, the focus of the programs is on encouraging community recycling or the construction of recycling facilities. Therefore, The study did not reveal any parallel assistance programs airports may enhance their access to funding for recycling by focused on noise compatibility at the state level. However, partnering with appropriate local governmental agencies. many states have airport planning and development grant pro- grams. Often, the focus of these programs is providing all or As noted, opportunities for publicprivate partnerships for part of the local matching fund requirements for AIP grants. recycling are available. If the volume and nature of recyclable Information on the state programs is included in the matrix in materials are commercially viable, at least one private-sector chapter four. In states with airport grant programs, state funds firm may be willing to provide recycling equipment and facil- may be available to help cover the local matching requirement ities at no cost to the airport and may even provide a recycling for AIP noise grants. revenue stream. Petroleum Storage Tanks and Releases ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES Petroleum storage tanks are as much a part of airport land- The following is a listing of general information sources on scapes as runways and taxiways. Most states have financial environmental financial assistance identified for this report. assistance programs to help cover the costs of cleaning up inadvertent petroleum releases from storage tanks. In many As noted, DSIRE provides a comprehensive listing of cases, as reflected in the matrix in chapter four, the program financial assistance and incentives for renewable energy functions in a manner similar to an insurance policy. The tank and energy efficiency projects. For each state, in addition owner pays a deductible and the funding agency covers the to state programs, federal programs and programs offered balance of the costs. Liability for damages to third parties may by utility companies are cited. also be covered. Generally, to benefit from these programs A nationwide listing of geothermal incentives is available airports must register their tanks with the appropriate state at: agency and promptly notify the state of any release. Timely heat-pump-incentives.html.

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10 For airports in Missouri, the Missouri Catalogue of, www.Environmental Financial Assistance,, and MoCSAP.pdf, provides a listing of financial assistance However, these websites appeared to be oriented toward opportunities within the state. individuals and small businesses and charge subscrip- In 2008, the EPA published the Guidebook of Financial tion or other fees. Tools, Paying for Environmental Systems. The guidebook Two sources of information on foundations offering is a compendium of tools and strategies for financing grants were identified. The Foundation Center at http:// environmental initiatives and includes information on provides a comprehensive list- federal assistance programs and publicprivate partner- ing of foundations. A subscription is required to access ships. The guidebook also discusses options that may some of the center's databases. However, listings of open be available to state or local governments to institute Requests for Proposals (RFPs) are available at no charge taxes and fees that generate revenues to support envi- at The Norcross ronmental initiatives. Links to relevant websites are Wildlife Foundation includes in its website a link to also included. A link is available at general information on foundations, which appears to efinpage/publications/GFT2008.pdf. be oriented toward foundations, rather than potential The study effort located a number of commercial grant- grantees: finding websites, including, Infor/Foundmain.html.