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47 DEFINITIONS Asphalt binder: An asphalt-based cement that is produced along with one or more inches of the underlying base or from petroleum residue either with or without the addi- subgrade. The pulverized material is mixed with or with- tion of modifiers (ASTM D6648-01). out additional binders, additives, or water, and then placed, graded, and compacted to provide an improved Bituminous emulsion: A suspension of minute globules of base layer before placement of the final surface layers. bituminous material in water or in an aqueous solution. Hot in-place recycling (HIR): A process that preheats the Cold in-place expanded asphalt mix (CIREAM): A CIR existing surface immediately before milling, mixing the process that uses expanded (foamed) asphalt cement RAP with asphalt binders, recycling agents, new aggre- instead of emulsion as the binder. gates, or other additives to improve the properties of the Cold in-place recycling (CIR): A process that uses cold RAP, then placing and compacting the new mix in one milling of the surface and remixing with the addition of continuous operation. asphalt emulsion, portland cement, foamed asphalt, or Milling: Fine particles (generally ranging in size from dust other additives to improve the properties of the reclaimed to less than 1 in.) of bitumen and inorganic material that asphalt pavement (RAP), followed by placing and com- are produced by the mechanical grinding of bituminous pacting the new mix in one continuous operation. concrete surfaces (New Jersey Department of Environ- Emulsified recycling agent: A suspension of minute glob- mental Protection 2010). ules of bituminous material in water or in an aqueous Pulverization: Mechanized process that transforms the solution where the bituminous material is a blend of existing flexible pavement surface layer and a portion of hydrocarbons with or without minor amounts of other the underlying granular layer into a uniform granular materials that are used to alter or improve the properties material suitable for use as a base layer (Caltrans 2008). of the aged asphalt in a recycled asphalt paving mixture. Recycling agent (RA): A blend of hydrocarbons with or Expanded asphalt (EA): See foamed asphalt. without minor amounts of other materials that is used to Foamed asphalt: Produced by a process in which water is alter or improve the properties of the aged asphalt in recy- injected into the hot asphalt, resulting in spontaneous cled asphalt. foaming. Also called expanded asphalt (Muthen 1998). Rejuvenator: An additive used in the recycling of reclaimed Full-depth reclamation (FDR): A pavement rehabilitation asphalt pavement. process that pulverizes an existing asphalt pavement