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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 698 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Application of Accelerated Bridge Construction Connections in Moderate-to-High Seismic Regions

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S.DOT John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of June 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 698 Application of Accelerated Bridge Construction Connections in Moderate-to-High Seismic Regions M. Lee Marsh Markus Wernli Brian E. Garrett BERGERABAM Seattle, WA John F. Stanton Marc O. Eberhard Michael D. Weinert UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Seattle, WA Subscriber Categories Highways Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 698 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-88 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-21343-1 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011935076 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 698 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-88 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges Michael D. Keever, California DOT, Sacramento, CA (Chair) Richard A. Pratt, Alaska DOT and Public Facilities, Juneau, AK Ian Buckle, University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State DOT, Tumwater, WA Anne M. Rearick, Indiana DOT, Indianapolis, IN Edward P. Wasserman, Tennessee DOT, Nashville, TN Derrell A. Manceaux, FHWA Liaison Phil Yen, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report identifies promising details to be used for connections of bridge members in accelerated bridge construction in medium to high seismic regions and gives recommenda- tions for further research. Existing connection details were gathered from state departments of transportation (DOTs), industry, and academia and were evaluated for their perfor- mance in terms of readiness for use, construction risk, durability, and seismic performance. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and many state departments of trans- portation (DOTs) are actively promoting accelerated bridge construction (ABC) to mini- mize construction-related impacts to the traveling public and to enhance work-zone safety. Many successful applications of ABC techniques have been recently realized, largely in regions of low seismic activity. A number of these ABC applications are documented in FHWA Connection Details for Prefabricated Elements and Systems published in 2009. However, use of ABC techniques has been more limited in seismic regions of the coun- try. A key factor in successful implementation of this initiative lies in the connections between prefabricated elements. Providing reliable connections to ensure ductile perfor- mance is essential to developing designs capable of performing to the specifications required in seismic-prone areas. Several prefabricated connection details used for recent ABC projects in seismic regions hold significant promise for more widespread applica- tion, but they have not been fully tested for seismic loading. To develop an improved understanding of their ultimate performance, recommendations for further testing were needed Research was performed under NCHRP Project 12-88 by BergerABAM and the Depart- ment of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington. The research presented herein synthesizes the available information related to connection details recently used or under development for potential use on ABC bridges and gives suggestions for future research. A number of deliverables are provided as appendices. These are not published herein but are available on the TRB website. These appendices are titled as follows: Appendix A--Summary Sheets of Bar Coupler Connections Appendix B--Summary Sheets of Grouted Duct Connections Appendix C--Summary Sheets of Pocket Connections Appendix D--Summary Sheets of Member Socket Connections Appendix E--Summary Sheets of Hybrid Connections Appendix F--Summary Sheets of Integral Connections

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Appendix G--Summary Sheets of Emerging Technology and Deformable Element Connections Appendix H--Detailed Evaluation of Connection Types Appendix I--Questionnaires Appendix J--2012 Research Problem Statement

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Background 2 Statement of the Problem 2 Objectives of the Study 3 Organization of the Research Report 4 Chapter 2 Research Approach 4 Literature and Practice Review 4 Definition of Seismic Connections and Performance Strategies 7 Classification of Connection Types 9 Evaluation Methodology 14 Bridge Systems 15 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 15 Evaluation of Connection Types 30 Self-Propelled Modular Transporters 31 Time Savings 32 Evaluation of ABC Bent and Bridge Systems 35 Identification of Knowledge Gaps and Research Priorities for Connections for Seismic Performance 43 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 43 Conclusions 46 Suggested Research 48 Acronyms 50 Bibliography 54 Appendices A through J Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-88 by BergerABAM and the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington. BergerABAM was the contractor for this study with the University of Washington as subcontractor. Dr. M. Lee Marsh of BergerABAM was the principal investigator. Jim Guarre of BergerABAM was con- sulting as senior bridge engineer, and Dr. John F. Stanton and Dr. Marc O. Eberhard, both professors at the University of Washington, were consulting researchers and authors to the project. The other authors of this report were Dr. Markus Wernli and Brian E. Garrett from BergerABAM, and Michael D. Weinert, research assistant at the University of Washington. The work was done under the general supervision of Dr. M. Lee Marsh at BergerABAM and Dr. John F. Stanton at the University of Washington. The project would not have been possible without the support of the FHWA and the departments of transportation (DOTs) of Alaska, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, and Washington, and researchers from University of California, San Diego; California State University, Sacramento; Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research; University of California, Berkeley; Iowa State University; University of Texas, Austin; University of Nevada, Reno; Utah State University; University of Minnesota; University of Tennessee at Knoxville; Stanford University; and University of Washington--all of whom filled out a questionnaire or e-mailed responses and shared their ongoing research and design guidelines that were relevant to this project. Thirteen international contacts included researchers from the University of Nottingham, University of Rome, University of Kyoto, Tokyo Tech, University of Canterbury, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Technical University Frederico Santa Maria, University of Patras, and University of Pavia. Contractors and precast producers who responded to the questionnaire or provided information by telephone included Concrete Technology, Inc., C.C. Myers, Inc., Encon United Companies, Flatiron Construction Corp., Mammoet USA South, Inc., Mowat Construction, Kiewit Construction, and PCL Construction. The Washington State DOT and Graham Construction provided valuable information at the Time Savings workshop.