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10 OVERVIEW OF STUDY out the following components of a FOD management program: inspection, detection, removal, documentation, and promotion Scope of Study and awareness. Also, the questionnaire sought to identify rea- sons why airports adopted various tools and procedures. The focus of this study was on current airport inspection practices regarding FOD. Airports conduct self-inspections for a variety of purposes, but this study focused solely on The second questionnaire developed for this synthesis, those inspections for FOD. In addition, the definition of "Survey of Manufacturers/Suppliers of Airport Inspection wildlife for this study is limited to wildlife, whether living or Technology and Equipment," can be found in Appendix C. dead, that would be characterized as FOD. Although the syn- The questionnaire was sent to all manufactures and/or suppli- thesis focuses on inspection practices, this study approached ers of equipment and technology considered useful to airports FOD from a comprehensive perspective and, as such includes in conducting inspections, as well as detecting, removing, and chapters on inspection, detection, removal, documenta- documenting FOD. The purpose of the questionnaire was to tion, and promotion and awareness. Each chapter not only determine the entire spectrum of equipment and technology addresses requirements, but also presents current airport currently available to airports for carrying out a comprehen- practices and specific technology and equipment available sive FOD management program. With this information, a con- for airports in carrying out each specific component of a FOD tinuum of available technology and equipment (depending on management program. Although the majority of airport oper- the specific component of a FOD management program) was ators surveyed for this synthesis operate in the United States, developed. Although the initial effort involved an attempt to and the bulk of pertinent information found through the liter- determine pricing for the various technology and equipment; ature review dealt with FOD in the United States, this report typically, manufacturers were reluctant to provide this infor- included FOD programs and technologies that exist across mation. This is the result, in large part, to the very site-specific the world, in addition to those pursued by the U.S. military. nature of the technology currently available. Costs vary owing to civil engineering requirements, airfield complexity, and spe- cific airport needs. Thus, airports interested in acquiring equip- Study Methodology ment or technology for a FOD management program are To best determine the current state of practice on FOD man- encouraged to consult with specific manufacturers or suppliers agement at airports, this synthesis was carried out using a to determine pricing for their intended application. comprehensive approach. Information used in this study was acquired through an extensive literature and data review, two Great care was taken to ensure that the methodology for surveys, follow-up interviews of survey respondents, contri- the survey implementation was both sound and strategically butions from panel members, and the author's professional orchestrated. For instance, to obtain a nationwide representation knowledge of the subject area. of airports and manufacturers/suppliers, the FAA's nine regions were utilized. Within each region, an attempt was made to At the outset, a literature and data search was conducted to select one airport from each of the following categories: large document regulations for conducting FOD inspections on the hub, medium hub, small hub, non-hub, and general aviation U.S. and international levels. Additionally, the literature was (GA). In addition, where possible, two military airports were reviewed regarding all aspects of FOD management. The selected from each of the five U.S. branches of the military, as search focused on the following: (1) 14 CFR Part 139; (2) rel- well as five non-U.S. airports. After revising the sample based evant state and international regulations on the subject matter; on the recommendation of panel members, the study included a (3) other federal guidance such as CertAlerts and Advisory total sample size of 56 airports. Because of the relatively small Circulars; (4) relevant literature in the forms of books, maga- population of manufacturers and suppliers, the entire known zines, reports, and surveys conducted on the various aspects population of manufacturers and suppliers was included; of FOD; and (5) examination of current products that exist on 20 companies. The population of manufacturers/suppliers was the market to prevent, detect, and remove FOD from an air- developed from an Internet search and review of the literature. port's surface. To aid in survey distribution and simplify responses, the Survey instruments were developed to gather data from a questionnaires were created in, and distributed by, means of sample of airport operators, as well as the population of manu- a web-based survey management platform. Once contact facturers of technology and equipment considered beneficial information for the 56 participating airports was uploaded, for a FOD management program. The first questionnaire, "Air- participants were sent an e-mail explaining the purpose of the port Survey of Inspection Practices" can be found in Appen- study and containing a link to the online questionnaire. Once dix B. This questionnaire, which consisted of 42 items, was the recipient clicked on the link to access the survey, they designed to solicit perspectives from airport managers and/or were presented with an introduction of the study and a consent operations personnel regarding their current airport inspection request. By clicking "Next," participants were then directed practices for FOD. Specifically, the purpose of this question- to the first page of the questionnaire. In an effort to reach the naire was to determine the tools (including equipment and tech- desired 80% response rate, multiple contacts were used. Two nology) and procedures airport personnel are using in carrying e-mail follow-ups were sent after the initial invitation e-mail,

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11 U.S. Western Pacific Region 3 U.S. Southwestern Region 5 U.S. Southern Region 4 U.S. Northwest Mountain Region 5 U.S. New England Region 5 U.S. Great Lakes Region 5 U.S. Eastern Region 7 U.S. Central Region 4 U.S. Alaska Region 2 Europe 2 Canada 5 Australia 1 FIGURE 4 Airport respondent self-selected geographic location. Note: Two airports did not indicate FAA region or geographic location. followed by a phone call from the consultant, followed by In addition to categorization by hub size, the questionnaire personal contact by individual panel members as necessary. also determined the size of the responding airports by the num- This effort was sufficient and eventually resulted in an 89% ber of operations. The airports participating in this synthesis response rate (50 airports). also include a wide range of airports in terms of annual opera- tions. Figure 6 shows airport respondents by annual operations. Participating Airports Lastly, in a final effort to fully understand the airports par- ticipating in the synthesis, participants were asked their air- Data were collected from 50 airports. Appendix A lists these port certification status. Although the majority of participants participating airports and Figure 4 presents the breakdown of were larger, Class I airports (as specified by Part 139), other respondents by FAA region. categories (including international) were represented as well. Figure 7 presents airport respondents by certification. In addition to the wide geographic distribution of respon- dents, the airports participating in this synthesis were of almost As shown in Figures 47, the synthesis collected data from any size. Figure 5 presents the airport respondents by airport a diverse group of airports. Specifically, participating airports category or size. represent all FAA geographic regions and some international Large hub 8 Medium hub 8 Small hub 5 Non-hub 10 GA 6 Military 3 FIGURE 5 Airport respondent self-selected hub size. Note: Ten airports did not indicate airport size.

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12 Less than 10,000 0 10,001 to 30,000 3 30,001 to 70,000 12 70,001 to 100,000 3 100,001 to 150,000 4 150,001 to 200,000 7 200,001 to 300,000 6 Greater than 300,000 8 FIGURE 6 Airport respondent self-selected number of operations. Note: Seven airports did not indicate classification status. countries, as well as all hub sizes. Airports vary in size by four presents the methods used to remove FOD, including number of operations and represent all classes of 14 CFR both mechanized and non-mechanized systems. In addition, Part 139 (with the exception of Class III), as well as ICAO this chapter presents current airport practices, as well as the Annex 14 (ICAO n.d.). technology and equipment available for FOD removal. Chap- ter five presents the methods used to document FOD and analyze data, as well as current airport practices and technol- Report Organization ogy and equipment available for FOD documentation and analysis. Chapter six presents the concepts of training and This report has been organized into seven chapters. Chapter promotion, and includes current airport practices on this one introduced the concept of FOD, provided examples, and topic. Chapter seven presents concluding thoughts on FOD detailed the scope and objectives of the project. Chapter two management and summarizes the major findings of the focuses on the methods used to inspect for FOD, as well as synthesis. Each chapter generally first presents information current airport practices and technology and equipment avail- gleaned from the literature review, before presenting equip- able for inspections. Chapter three presents the methods used ment and technology currently available, followed by current to detect FOD, as well as current airport practices and tech- airport practices. There is additional supporting information nology and equipment available for FOD detection. Chapter in the appendices. 14CFR Part 139 - Class I 22 14CFR Part 139 - Class II 4 14CFR Part 139 - Class III 0 14CFR Part 139 - Class IV 6 ICAO Annex 14 7 Not certificated 7 0 5 10 15 20 25 FIGURE 7 Airport respondents by certification. Note: Four airports did not indicate certification status.