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15 INSPECTION TECHNIQUES Next, although many airports utilize operations personnel to conduct inspections for FOD, some airports also rely on There are currently two ACs that provide techniques for con- Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) personnel, mainte- ducting inspections for FOD. First, AC 150/5200-18C, Airport nance personnel, and police personnel. At some airports, such Safety Self Inspection (FAA 2004b, p. 4) suggests: as Vancouver International Airport, ARFF personnel may Inspectors should vary the pattern of the inspection. Fixed inspec- respond to remove debris, because ARFF personnel can often tion patterns, while easy to learn, do not provide for an adequate do this more expeditiously than operations personnel who may inspection. The use of such fixed inspection patterns can lead to be inside a terminal building at the time (B. Patterson, personal complacency and to the possibility of missing items that are in communication, 2010). need of correction. When conducting an inspection on a run- way and when there is time to do only one pass on that runway, inspection personnel, whenever practical, should drive towards Next, when considering the actual time to conduct an the direction of landing aircraft with high intensity flashing bea- inspection, airports may wish to consider shoulder periods; con and headlights on day and night. This practice will enable self-inspection personnel to see approaching aircraft and improve that is, those lower traffic periods either before or after peak. visibility of the vehicle to pilots. However, it is recommended At many U.S. airports this tends to be around 9:00 a.m. local that a runway inspection be done in both directions. Inspection time. When conducting inspections at night, by focusing personnel should also drive the stub taxiways between the runway and parallel taxiway as these areas are commonly overlooked. on active runways, inspection personnel can then inspect inactive runways before they are used. It may also be helpful Although AC 150/5200-18 refers to all types of self- to integrate inspections with aircraft arrivals and departures. At inspections, AC 150/5210-24 refers specifically to FOD Vancouver International Airport, for instance, self-inspections inspections. Specifically (FAA 2010a, p. 17): are integrated within aircraft arrivals and departures by filing for two departure slots to allow the inspection personnel the The FAA and ICAO require a daily, daylight inspection of aircraft time to sufficiently perform an inspection on the runway. operating areas. Operational areas must be inspected at least once This allows about 3 min per runway, every 6 h (B. Patterson, each day, with additional inspections being made in construction areas and immediately after any aircraft or ground vehicle accident personal communication, 2010). or incident or any spill of material which may cause slippery con- ditions. In addition to performing these inspections at the beginning Yet another issue when conducting inspections is the type of the day or shift, personnel in the AOA should practice a clean- as-you-go technique of looking for FOD during their normal shifts of aircraft using the airport. If only propeller aircraft use the in the course of their regular duties. Inspections occurring at night, airport, inspection personnel may wish to consider prop wash taking place after the runway is closed or before the runway is and focus near the center of pavement areas. Airports serv- opened, also occur frequently. During night time inspections, personnel and vehicles should be equipped with additional lights/ ing wide-body jets, on the other hand, may wish to con- lighting systems to better detect FOD. sider the consequences of jet blast and focus inspections on runway and taxiway shoulders, in addition to the center of In addition to these ACs, there are some additional inspec- pavement areas. Airports with jet service that do not have tion techniques that airports may wish to consider. First, air- asphalt paved runway shoulders may wish to consider this ports may differentiate between proactive inspections and reac- airfield improvement. tive inspections. Proactive inspections are those conducted on a regular basis, whether once per day or every 6 h, to inspect for FOD (as well as other airfield items). Reactive inspections are PREVENTION TECHNIQUES necessary once FOD has been reported. This involves reacting to a FOD event by responding to the AOA and removing the In addition to inspections for debris, proper housekeeping debris, initiating any corrective action, and documenting can go a long way in preventing FOD on the front end. As the FOD event. All successful FOD management programs shared by Reid (2004, p. 30), "Almost every FOD incident use both proactive and reactive inspections. can be traced back to bad housekeeping." Although this may not be true for wildlife and other natural FOD, it is certainly When conducting a reactive inspection (i.e., responding to true for items such as packing material and tools. Therefore, a FOD report), it is beneficial to inspect areas in addition to that good housekeeping practices are an essential part of FOD where debris were reported; FOD may have relocated since it prevention techniques. Specifically, as promoted by Reid was reported. Likewise, location reports may be inaccurate. If, (2004, pp. 3031): for example, a rock was reported and that rock was removed, inspection of the surrounding area might reveal a larger spall Keep your house and equipment in good repair with additional debris that need removing. If inspection Equipment that is worn out and broken may leave a personnel respond to a FOD report and discover nothing, it part behind, not noticed until someone runs up an is important that additional areas (both pavement and non- engine. pavement) be inspected in an attempt to locate the debris. This Watch your "stuff "--materials, packaging, etc. may mean that a reactive inspection transforms into a pro- All packing material, binding tapes and wires, string, active inspection, as inspection personnel begin searching for pieces of cardboard, wood, and plastic must be picked additional FOD that may have not been reported. up and disposed of properly. Delivery personnel must