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31 CHAPTER FIVE DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA Accurate Data + Thorough Analysis + Effective Action = 3. Description of FOD retrieved (category, size, and color) Fewer FOD Incidents and/or image (if available). (Messenger 2004a, p. 37). 4. Location of FOD object (coordinates and reference to the AOA location). Once FOD is removed, it is essential that it be properly docu- 5. Possible source. mented, especially debris removed from movement areas. 6. Name of personnel detecting/investigating FOD item. This step may not appear as important as the previously dis- 7. Airport operations and weather data during the FOD cussed steps of inspection, detection, and removal; however, detection event. documentation plays a critical role in the overall process. Without documentation and subsequent analysis of the data, Regarding the manner in which FOD is described, it is the airport operator or FOD manager has no record of previ- very effective to also generate categories in which to place ous FOD events and little idea how to proactively minimize documented FOD. According to Morse (2004), 70%75% future FOD incidents. Analysis is an important part of this of FOD events have historically been categorized as "cause process, so that trends can be revealed and FOD "hot spots" unknown." This makes trend analysis difficult. Thus, Morse be discovered. Airports can effectively "know their FOD" by (2004, p. 181) proposes that airports allow for the following properly documenting it. Indeed, the documentation of FOD categories when documenting FOD: supports the risk assessment process detailed in chapter three; for without knowing the types of FOD collected and the typi- · Internal cal locations from which the FOD is removed it is difficult · Ice to understand the risk prevented by FOD at an airport. As · Concrete/stone Messenger (2004a, p. 38) states, "The purpose of your data is · Aircraft hardware to identify problems and implement lasting solutions." In gen- · GSE hardware eral terms, the documentation phase consists of the process · Luggage hardware of writing down on paper, or electronically, and then storing · Wildlife strikes what type of FOD was detected, where it was located, the · Tool risk/hazard it presented, and how the situation was dealt with. · Constructional material · Soft body. DOCUMENTED ITEMS Although documenting FOD may appear simple enough, it does require initiative on the part of the employee han- Documentation is an important component of FOD manage- dling the FOD event. This is best accomplished by requiring ment, as it provides the airport operator or FOD manager with proper documentation as part of the airport's FOD Standard historical FOD data for the airport. By analyzing past FOD Operating Procedure or policy and conveying this require- events, the airport operator or FOD manager can take appro- ment through training and awareness (as discussed in chap- priate action to minimize future FOD events and enact best ter six). practices. In should be noted, however, that there is no expec- tation to document FOD removed from apron areas, although airports may weigh the amount of debris collected in contain- DATABASE ers placed in and around gate areas for the purpose of gaug- ing the severity of the FOD problem. FOD is generally docu- To efficiently record FOD occurrences and allow for trend mented when removed from movement areas (runways and analysis airports may find it beneficial to develop an actual taxiways). Through AC 150/5210-24, the FAA recommends recording database. Records of individual FOD cases should the following seven specific items that should be documented include the seven items listed previously. As stated in AC in every case of FOD that an airport handles (FAA 2010a): 150/5210-24, "These records may be required in the event of a formal investigation of an accident or serious incident, and 1. How the FOD object was detected. can also be used to identify any trends, repeats, unusual con- 2. Date and time of FOD detection and retrieval. ditions, etc., in order for corrective action to be initiated"