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32 (FAA 2010a, p. 26). Additionally, however, an airport may eliminate certain types of debris. Airports will benefit from choose to include data resulting from audits or inspections and the final steps of documentation and analysis, and the FOD customer or tenant feedback. By maintaining FOD records for management program will have a longer lasting effect than at least two years, airports will have valuable information that its short-term goal of immediately removing FOD that has will help in FOD detection and removal in the future, as well been discovered. as "ensure traceability of all significant safety-related deci- sions" (FAA 2010a, p. 26). Some airports advocate that records be maintained for periods longer than two years to allow for Risk Assessment historical trend analysis. It is worth noting that the FAA As first presented in chapter three, risk assessment in FOD recently initiated efforts to develop a national FOD database, management is a two-part process. The first involves an instan- which would work to highlight FOD trends on a national taneous risk assessment, which may take place during the level. Once implemented, the system will operate on a vol- inspection/detection stage, and the other part is a more tradi- untary basis, with airports being encouraged to participate in tional risk assessment, which may take place during the doc- the database. umentation and analysis stage. The overall process of any risk assessment is much the same and is, according to the FAA, as follows (FAA 2007b): ASSESSING PERFORMANCE 1. Describe the system To determine the effectiveness of the FOD management 2. Identify the hazards program and various FOD prevention techniques that have 3. Determine the risk been adopted as part of that program, airports will find it use- 4. Assess and analyze the risk ful to assess their performance in relation to FOD. As NAFPI 5. Treat the risk (i.e., mitigate, monitor, and track). (n.d., p. 6) states, "The operational target in any FOD Pre- vention Program should always be `zero.' " To determine Risk assessment during and after the documentation stage the degree to which an airport is successful in achieving this is one aspect of the trend analysis process. The documentation target, performance can be assessed. Various methods are stage can be very critical to any FOD management program available to airports in proving this information, according to because the strengths and weaknesses of the entire program NAFPI (n.d., p. 6): can be examined. Through documentation, discoveries may be made that reveal where FOD items are generally located, what Visibility charts/statistical graphics derived from audit they are composed of, the time of day and weather conditions or incident data. Usually provided on an isochronic sched- that generally accompany these occurrences, and other items. ule; that is, weekly or monthly. When these items are known, a formal risk assessment involv- Trend analysis--Where have you been? Where are you ing the five previously mentioned steps of a risk assessment going? may take place. Report card--A checklist of areas routinely inspected that shows specific problem areas. The first phase is to describe the system, which entails Performance review--A review of worker conformance describing the operating environment in which the hazards to standards and expectations. will be identified. System description serves as the boundaries Customer comments, concerns, or complaints. for hazard identification. For airports, characteristics of any operational, procedural, conditional, or physical nature are included in the system description (FAA 2010a). Successful FOD prevention programs incorporate trend analysis on a regular basis. To analyze trends, after the The second phase (identify the hazards), can occur documentation process has been completed, it is critical in a variety of ways, and may include the use of a chart. that the documents be kept for at least 24 calendar months. When using a chart, the identifier may list a sampling of Trend analysis involves the review of each FOD occur- common FOD that has been found at the airport, including rence at an airport, including how often each type of debris the hazard, and frequency of the occurrences. For example, are found, at what locations the majority of the debris are a piece of concrete would be classified as having a high found, what sizes of debris exist, in what weather condi- expected hazard and a common frequency, whereas a bro- tions debris are found, and so on. In reality, trend analysis ken runway sign would also have a high expected hazard may be performed on any of the variables recorded during score, but be deemed uncommon with regard to frequency FOD documentation. The purpose of analyzing each FOD (FAA 2010a). occurrence is so that trends may be discovered to assist the FOD manager in improving their inspection, detection, and The third phase of FOD risk assessment involves deter- removal techniques, and possibly to even take steps to mining the risk associated with each piece of debris. In this