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33 stage, the actual risk that each piece of FOD presents is deter- airport operator or other qualified personnel may weigh the mined. For instance, if a small piece of concrete has been options that are presented to them in addressing a particular identified as a risk, the employee may determine that engine hazard. In addition, before a FOD management program can ingestion could be the actual hazard that would threaten an be implemented, it is necessary to consider how the program aircraft (FAA 2010a). will be funded, who will oversee it, and the implementa- tion schedule. Decisions may have to be made on what to The fourth and final phase of a FOD risk assessment include and what to exclude from the program. It is impor- process is to assess and analyze the risk. For the purpose of tant for the operator to remain objective during this process FOD detection, risk has been defined by the FAA as, ". . . the and ". . . implement appropriate and cost-effective risk mitiga- composite of the predicted severity and likelihood of the out- tion plans to mitigate hazards" (FAA 2007b, p. 13). When come or effect (harm) of the hazard in the worst credible sys- possible, airports may wish to include a diverse group of tem state" (FAA 2010b, Appendix 1, p 3). Severity is also individuals in making these decisions, as their differing considered in the risk matrix and has a different definition experiences and knowledge base will enrich the develop- than likelihood. The likelihood of each risk occurring was ment of a risk assessment program (Stolzer et al. 2008, determined in the second phase of the risk assessment. In the pp. 130148). For further information on the risk profile of fourth stage, the severity or "worst credible potential out- FOD, consult McCreary (2010). come" is taken into consideration (FAA 2010a). A sample risk matrix is show in Figure 26. IMPROVING FOREIGN OBJECT As shown in Figure 26, the likelihood and severity (or DEBRIS MANAGEMENT consequences) intersect to determine the level of risk. Gener- ally, three levels of risk may be found--low, medium, and Perhaps the most important aspect and end goal of the doc- high. It is worth noting that several risk matrix charts do umentation process is improving the entire FOD management include a fourth category, extreme or critical, which ranks program. By properly documenting FOD, airports are able to above high risks (Stolzer et al. 2008). see how instances of FOD have been handled in the past and where improvements can be made, thus improving the safety High risks are unacceptable in a safety-driven industry performance of the airport. Furthermore, any FOD "hot spots" such as aviation. A level of medium risk is considered can be determined, thereby allowing a more focused effort in acceptable in many situations, meaning that operations can these areas. Based on data from Vancouver International Air- proceed normally; however, close supervision of the sce- port, McCreary (2010) proposed that FOD hot spots may not nario should be maintained. Low risk is the goal of every exist. However, this may vary among airports, especially if for safety program, and with the proper application of a risk example an airport has an active FOD generator in the form of matrix airport operators are most likely to achieve this goal a construction site. In any event, it is helpful for the FOD man- (FAA 2010b). ager to regularly review past findings and evaluate how their FOD management system operates. This may take the form of Finally, after the four phases of risk assessment have a Corrective Action Plan, which is based on the root causes of been completed, it is vital to treat the risk. At this point the the FOD, and will likely present the steps to be taken to reduce any FOD problems. As Messenger (2004a, p. 45) noted, "Zero FOD is YOUR goal, and sound data coupled with commitment is a key in reaching it." CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE FOR DOCUMENTATION Once FOD is collected and before disposal it needs to be properly documented. As previously discussed, documenta- tion is important for understanding trends and properly incor- porating continuous improvement into a FOD management program. Documentation begins with properly recording information once the debris are collected. This can easily be done on a form; however, documentation becomes more complex as an airport begins to analyze debris collected over a certain time period or in a defined location. In this instance, a computer database or FOD-specific software program FIGURE 26 Sample risk matrix. Source: Mobile Safety Solutions. becomes invaluable.

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34 forms by means of a touch-screen tablet PC or notebook com- puter. They may also contain GPS and GIS capabilities, allow- ing the inspector to pinpoint exact locations at which FOD is removed. Others mimic a well-developed electronic database, which allows one to enter all required information about a FOD event. Whether obtained from a vendor or developed in-house, once recorded, data can then be analyzed by the variables used to enter the information. In this way, reports can be generated, thereby allowing for investigation, audits, and continuous improvement. Figure 27 shows an in-vehicle FOD documentation system. Interface with Foreign Object Debris Detection System Other manufacturers incorporate a documentation software FIGURE 27 In-vehicle FOD documentation system. Source: Paul program that interfaces with their FOD detection system. One Khera, Alaska Department of Transportation. manufacturer, for instance, has integrated its FOD documen- tation program with its FOD detection system so that FOD events are not only recorded, but actual images are archived as Stand-alone Tools well. Another manufacturer provides a software toolbox that The simplest form of documentation occurs with a manual sys- enables the airport to store, view, and analyze all detection data tem. With a FOD inspection checklist, wildlife reporting form, provided by the system. As a result, trends and patterns can be or other form/checklist, an airport employee with a clipboard identified that will allow the airport to improve its overall FOD and a pen can properly document FOD as it is collected. If management program. This same provider's program offers a a photograph(s) is taken, it can be printed and attached to heat map view, which graphically displays the density of FOD the paper form. This system allows for a paper trail and can be detected by area, overlaid on an airport map or image. This effective in documenting FOD. However, trend analysis can tool can quickly highlight potential problem areas or FOD hot prove cumbersome, requiring that many previously completed spots, allowing efforts to be focused where they are most forms be reviewed to uncover trends. needed. Whether the FOD documentation software is included with the FOD detection system or must be acquired separately, Stand-alone Technology airports may wish to consider how well the documentation system integrates with the detection system in use. The incorporation of technology into the documentation process may enhance an airport's efficiency. Various manu- Documentation Continuum facturers currently offer stand-alone technological solutions to FOD documentation. Some of these solutions may be Regardless of the degree of FOD documentation at an air- used within a vehicle and allow access to Part 139 inspection port, a number of solutions exist--ranging from fully man- checklists, accident reports, operations manuals, and FOD ual to fully computerized. The continuum in Figure 28 has FIGURE 28 Continuum of technology and equipment available for FOD documentation.