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37 CHAPTER SIX TRAINING AND PROMOTION To ensure a successful FOD management program, airports 7. Accountability, and not only need to address the four main areas of inspection, 8. Reporting. detection, removal, and documentation, but also incorporate a comprehensive training and promotion program. Without Over the course of the last several years, the FAA has adequate training of, and awareness by, all personnel of the taken an increased interest in human factor issues across the airport's FOD management program, employees cannot be aviation industry, creating a list of the dirty dozen human fac- expected to (1) understand the consequences of FOD on air- tors. These 12 factors, if not guarded against, also can easily port surfaces, and (2) emphasize FOD removal during their negatively affect the FOD process (Cunningham 2007): daily work. First, however, it is useful to consider the man- ner in which human factors and culture affect personnel and 1. Lack of communication the training and promotion paradigm. 2. Complacency 3. Lack of knowledge 4. Distractions HUMAN FACTORS 5. Lack of teamwork 6. Fatigue Whether implementing manual inspection and detection 7. Lack of resources methods or relying heavily on automated detection technol- 8. Pressure ogy, the human interface is still necessary; because of this, 9. Lack of assertiveness human errors can occur. Human errors are defined by ICAO 10. Stress as "the failure of planned actions to achieve their desired goal" 11. Lack of awareness (Mason et al. 2001, p. 3). Within the aviation industry, 75% 12. Norms. of accidents involve human performance errors (ICAO 2005). Although human interaction with FOD inspection and Human factor issues may be broken down into four main removal equipment is commonplace and may result in human categories, which can be characterized in the SHEL model of performance issues, visual and manual inspection and removal Software, Hardware, Equipment, and Liveware. Each of these practices are especially susceptible to human factor problems. categories is directly affected by human interaction, which is As found in the survey of airport operators, the vast majority the most flexible and adaptable part of the aviation system; of airports do not operate FOD detection or removal equip- hence, the importance of considering these issues (ICAO ment, and simply rely on visual and manual inspections; there- 2005). Several steps may be taken by an airport's FOD man- fore, the following human factor issues may be especially agement team to eliminate and reduce human error issues with important for these operators to consider when performing a regard to FOD. This includes the implementation of disci- visual inspection. plined work habits, active FOD promotion, and testing (Mason et al. 2001, p. 5). Awareness and reward programs for success- First, visual acuity is especially important to consider, and fully executing an airport's FOD program may also help in refers to the clearness of one's vision. Sunglasses, a clean the human factor issues of motivation and compliancy windshield, and an inspection vehicle equipped with ade- (Mason et al. 2001, p. 8). Training is especially critical to quate external lighting will improve visual acuity. Also of minimize the impacts of human factor issues on FOD man- importance is the speed at which an inspection is performed agement and Mason recommends that the following topics be in a vehicle; the faster the vehicle travels, the harder it is for taught during training (2001, p. 7): the inspector to scan the entire surface being inspected. Often, ATC asks the inspector to "expedite," and when this occurs it 1. Proper storage, may be best to exit the runway and continue the inspection 2. Shipping and handling, after the current aircraft operation, rather than driving the 3. Ramp control, runway at excessive speed simply to finish the inspection. 4. Clean-up strategies, One potential remedy to eliminating distractions for the 5. Housekeeping, inspector at a towered airport is to have ATC treat the inspec- 6. Inspection practices, tor as it would a normal flight, complete with a flight strip, so