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38 that a set amount of time can be allocated to the inspector Regular ramp FOD inspections without having to take into account incoming or departing Regular FOD bin cleaning aircraft. The location of the sun is also important, especially Properly stowed aircraft support equipment during sunrise and sunset. Often, driving away from the Prevention of personal items from becoming FOD sun, especially if is located low on the horizon, will improve Conducting of regular self-audits. vision. The attentiveness of the inspector may be addressed as well, to ensure that there are no outside distractions while Regardless of the specific practices adopted by an airport to performing the inspection. Distractions may be minimized create a positive FOD culture, attention to the airport's cul- by prohibiting the use of the vehicle AM/FM radio, cell ture in relation to FOD is essential. phone, or external music device(s) while on the runway. If airline personnel accompany the inspector, they should be instructed not to talk while the vehicle is on the runway. TRAINING Pilots are routinely taught how to scan for traffic, and inspec- tion personnel can be taught the same scanning technique, as The first step in promoting an airport's FOD management pro- well as how to rely on peripheral vision. Night, rain, fog, and gram is to make certain that all personnel working within the snow can negatively affect the vision of inspection person- AOA, including terminal ramps and gate areas, receive proper nel. In addition, heat can impair the inspector's vision; gen- initial training. As stressed by Messenger (2004b, p. 12): erating turbulent distortions over pavement and distorting For many workers FOD training means nap time; a boring video images (Chadwick 2001, p. 41). in a darkened room administered by a bored training representa- tive who has no real contact with FOD. It doesn't have to be that way. It can't be that way. CULTURE Although an abbreviated form of this training can be incor- Once human factors are addressed, it is important to create porated into an airport's Security Identification Display Area a positive culture in which a safe and FOD-free work envi- training program, for employees pursuing airside driving ronment is a top priority. As explained by Larrigan (2004, privileges, airports may wish to require the full FOD training p. 66), "FOD prevention is not something you teach once; program. In essence, airline ramp workers may receive an it must be an ongoing, multifaceted program that becomes abbreviated FOD training program, whereas personnel respon- part of the culture for everyone who operates on the airside sible for daily FOD inspections (i.e. operations, maintenance, of the airport." Developing a positive FOD culture requires, and/or ARFF) will be fully indoctrinated. This initial training first and foremost, a thorough commitment to FOD preven- should, according to AC 150/5210-24, focus on the following tion by management, including management of the airport, areas (FAA 2010a): FBO(s), airline(s), other tenants, and contractors. Personnel need to see this commitment and, with an active FOD cam- 1. Overview of the FOD management program in place paign, this can be ensured. As explained by the FAA (2010a, at the airport. p. 10): 2. Safety of personnel and airline passengers. 3. Causes and principal contributing factors of FOD. An effective FOD management program requires more than 4. The consequences of ignoring FOD and/or the incen- the implementation of rules and procedures to be followed. It tives of preventing FOD. requires the support of management to establish the attitude, decisions, and methods of operation at the policy-making level 5. General cleanliness and inspection standards for work that demonstrate the organization's priority to safety. areas (including the apron and AOA). 6. Proper care, use, and stowage of material and compo- Additional practices to ensure a positive FOD culture nent or equipment items used around aircraft while in include (Brothers and Simmons 2004, pp. 101104): maintenance or on airport surfaces. 7. Control of debris in the performance of work Emphasis on the individual employee role in safety assignments. Focus on FOD awareness with efforts such as various 8. Control over personal items and equipment. FOD campaigns 9. Proper control/accountability and care of tools and Effective training of personnel hardware. Proper containment of FOD 10. Requirements and procedures for regular inspection Proper equipment and tools and cleaning of aircraft and apron areas. Regular sweeping schedule 11. How to report FOD incidents or potential incidents. Tool inventory 12. Continuous vigilance for potential courses of hazardous An active FOD committee foreign objects. Prohibition on bird and animal feeding on airport grounds 13. FOD detection procedures, including the proper use Debris regularly removed from around ground support of detection technologies. equipment 14. FOD removal procedures.