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39 Similarly, NAFPI promotes the following training sub- senger provides additional suggestions in this regard (2004b, jects (NAFPI n.d., p. 7): p. 14): 1. Proper storage, shipping, and handling of material, Determine class size, who will attend, when and where components, and equipment; the training will be held, and the duration of training 2. Techniques to control debris; (45 min is a good rule of thumb). 3. Housekeeping; If possible, use a centrally located training area to reduce 4. Cleaning and inspection of components and assemblies; travel time, and schedule classes by organization/work 5. Accountability/control of tools and hardware; center so that classes may be tailored to the type of work 6. Control of personal items, equipment, and consum- performed and particular problems encountered in that ables; area. 7. Care and protection of end items; Provide training for all shifts and include all groups that 8. Quality workmanship ("Clean-As-You-Go," inspec- touch the product, visit the work areas, or that may con- tion); tribute to the generation of FOD. 9. Flight line, taxiway, and ramp control methods; and Consider requiring all organizations (including tenants 10. How to report FOD incidents or potential incidents. and contractors) to attend training. In addition to initial training, however it may be delivered, it is important to consider recurrent training. Recurrent, often- PROMOTION times annual, FOD training is also necessary for a continued focus on FOD prevention by airport personnel. The military Once initial training has been conducted, it is important to is skilled in providing annual FOD refresher training and, promote the FOD management program. Promotion can although civilian airports may not place as great an emphasis occur in a variety of ways, but is best accomplished by rely- on this, it is helpful to ask, as Messenger (2004b, p. 12) noted, ing on multiple methods. "What should they know in order to make improvements?" The answer to this question will vary among airports, but annual training can be a great time to review details of FOD Commitment events during the past year, corrective actions taken or planned, Just as a commitment by management to FOD prevention is and an overview of upcoming initiatives to better manage essential in developing a positive FOD culture, management FOD at the airport (Messenger 2004b). By incorporating data, commitment is also essential in successfully promoting FOD photographs, and even examples of FOD retrieved, the train- prevention. According to Messenger (2004b, p. 9): ing can be effective in gaining personnel support for the FOD program. Ball shares the following "Basic 10" list to teach The single most important factor in a successful FOD Prevention (2004, p. 129): Program is the complete commitment and ongoing support of your organization's top leadership. Without it, the program is Keep your vehicles free from trash inside and out. handicapped from the start and will suffer a lack of credibility. Always account for your tools when you enter the flight line. This commitment and support by top leadership requires Use good housekeeping; clean as you go. resources and a concerted effort to maintain awareness of the Never pass tools on to the next shift; always turn them FOD management program and the dangers of FOD. Other- in to ensure accountability. wise, personnel will likely lose sight of the importance of FOD Immediately report any lost object or tool so you can detection and removal and, if they do not sense it is important get help locating it quickly. to the airport or management, they will likely become a liabil- Check your tires at all entry control points before driv- ity to the program, rather than an asset. To develop this com- ing into flight-line areas. mitment by all levels of management and personnel, Chaplain Bag your trash before disposal to prevent it from and Reid recommend the following "Ten Commitments" to a becoming FOD. FOD campaign (2004, p. 21): Call the appropriate person if you see a ramp area that needs to be cleaned with a sweeper. 1. Safety--FOD is a primary safety issue. Take FOD walks seriously; spend the extra time to pick 2. Protect resources--FOD costs the global aviation commu- up everything you see, no matter how small. nity several billion dollars annually. 3. Be FOD fighters--Quality people doing quality work. Remember, it takes each and every one of us to form the 4. Our customers--They should not have to pay for our care- protective barrier to shield our jets from FOD and keep lessness. Neglecting FOD prevention reveals a lack of pro- our people safe. fessionalism, integrity, and maturity. 5. Partnership--Maintain strong relationships with every organization on the airfield. In addition to these ideas, some considerations are neces- 6. Employees--Flight operations or maintenance, civilian or sary in developing an effective FOD training program. Mes- military; everyone must be involved.

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40 7. Prevention--Demonstrate complete personal commitment offering suggestions for innovative FOD prevention, to this simple concept: "Clean-as-you-go." presented to employees signing a FOD commitment 8. Diminishing returns--Minimize equipment or aircraft dam- aged by FOD and returned for repairs. pledge, or provided to each employee participating in 9. Perfection--Perfection in a FOD free environment is a FOD walk event. possible. FOD banner: 10. Communication--This is the key to any successful pro- gram. Do it well. This typically involves a large, permanently mounted vinyl sign with a changeable message. It may be mounted above a door, on a hangar wall, or elsewhere. Visibility A set individual could be appointed with the task of changing the sign message on a monthly basis. Effective promotion of any FOD management program Posters: requires an emphasis on visibility. This requires regularly Posters could be mounted in frames or under Plexi- "advertising" the importance of FOD prevention to airport glas, rather than simply taped to a wall. personnel (Figure 32). As Messenger (2004b, p. 10) explains, Posters need to be relevant to the work being per- "If you can't see `advertising' for a FOD prevention program formed in that area and be changed regularly. in the working environment, it probably isn't reaching the Although FOD posters are available commercially, target personnel." It is important for all visual messages to be this is an opportunity for a design contest, allowing current, relevant, and dynamic. It is best to regularly change employees to submit poster design ideas. messages to catch the attention of airport personnel. Signs: Signs should be used to remind personnel of house- Various options are available to airports in visibly pro- keeping practices to prevent FOD, as well as the moting a FOD management program (Messenger 2004b, importance of FOD prevention. For instance, they pp. 1011). Some of these options include: may remind personnel to secure loose items, pick up debris when discovered, or check vehicle tires before FOD letters, notices, and bulletins: entering the AOA. Whether in the form of a memo, letter to personnel, Whether placed on a fence at the entrance to the or a one-page bulletin these written documents can AOA, in airline operations areas, or on the exterior of serve to enhance personnel awareness of the impor- terminal buildings, signs can serve as an important tance of FOD prevention. reminder of FOD prevention practices. T-shirts, caps, or jackets with the FOD logo or mascot: Shop aids: To encourage employee participation in wearing FOD FOD containers, shop vacuums, work stations, and apparel, consider holding a contest in which employ- other shop areas can play a role in FOD prevention. ees submit designs for a FOD mascot or logo, with The universally accepted color scheme for FOD is the winning design placed on clothing items. yellow with black letters, and this can be quite effec- Clothing items may be distributed to employees all at tive in promoting FOD awareness. once, distributed to tenants finding the most FOD each calendar quarter, used as rewards for employees A sample FOD bulletin appears in Figure 33. Awareness FOD Walk An innovative way to detect FOD, as well as promote an awareness of FOD prevention, is to organize team events that center around FOD detection. The most widely used such method is commonly referred to as a "FOD Walk" (Figure 34). As previously stated, FOD walks began in the military aboard aircraft carriers and remain the first defense against foreign objects both on aircraft carriers and military installations with aircraft in operation. Many airports have adopted this practice, and although civilian airports do not conduct FOD walks as frequently as the military, it is common for these walks to be held on an annual basis. A FOD walk involves individuals (air- port or airline employees, or both) walking side by side along FIGURE 32 FOD sign. Source: Indianapolis International Airport. the entire length of a runway. Armed with buckets or trash

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41 Planning is essential for a successful FOD walk. In addi- tion to selecting and promoting a date, as well explaining as the purpose of the walk, certain supplies are provided. As Messenger suggests, personnel need to be properly equipped with the following supplies (2004b, p. 17): Heavy duty trash bags, A megaphone to communicate with the crowd, A large industrial scale to weigh the debris, A large flatbed truck to haul away bags of debris, Gifts and prizes, A photographer to document the event, and A stopwatch. To ensure a successful FOD walk, airport operators endeavor to make the walk as creative and enjoyable an expe- rience as possible. For instance, teams can be created and those teams that detect and remove the most FOD may receive prizes DO YOUR PART! such as t-shirts or gift cards. At Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, the wing vice commander hides a gold-painted bolt on KEEP AN EYE OUT FOR FOD! the pavement to be found during the FOD walk. Whoever finds the golden bolt wins their 15 min of fame and thanks from some roaring jet engines (McGloin 2010). In addition, FOD walks can be turned into a form of company picnic, with drinks and food being offered to participants. Additional steps toward teamwork can be taken in having airline personnel or airport FIGURE 33 Sample FOD bulletin. tenants join airport inspectors on their daily FOD inspections to provide these individuals with additional insight into the daily application of FOD management. bags and constantly scanning the pavement, volunteers are asked to pick up any foreign objects, no matter how small. To ensure safety, the runway being inspected is closed, allowing individuals to detect and remove debris in an environment HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport, the busiest without a sense of urgency. As explained by Technical airport in the world, hosts an annual FOD walk. Both airport and airline employees participating in the event are given a Sergeant Jeffrey Vergara, 57th Wing FOD prevention NCO singular mission--to search for and pick up any FOD. Dur- and organizer of the 2010 FOD walk at Nellis Air Force Base, ing the May 2009 event, volunteers (including pilots, admin- Nevada, "By having all of Team Nellis walk the line together, istrative assistants, and flight attendants) began arriving by we're able to cover a large amount of space in a short period of 6:00 a.m. at the north cargo building and boarded buses time and significantly decrease our chances of missing some- to be driven to runway 8L/26R. According to Garth Collins, thing that could damage an aircraft" (James 2010, paragraph 4) airport senior operations supervisor, "We received a strong showing of support from volunteers who wanted to be a part of this year's FOD Walk. And they did an outstanding job. I was extremely pleased to see practically every career field in Aviation represented during the event." Collins explained that all employees are encouraged to pick up FOD from road- ways and ramps during their daily work routine, and to report items detected on the airfield to the Airport's Airside Oper- ations unit (Smith 2009). Additional Awareness Activities Effective FOD management programs regularly incorporate various activities to keep personnel engaged with FOD pre- FIGURE 34 FOD walk at Kadena Air Base, Japan. (Source: vention. Many of these activities can be part of a "FOD U.S. Air Force photo/Airman 1st Class Jarvie Wallace). Week" and prizes can be offered to participants. Messenger