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42 (2004b, pp. 1516), Larrigan (2004, p. 78), and Brothers and Because most of these activities will require prizes to Simmons (2004, p. 105) share the following ideas: ensure participation, it is helpful to develop prize guidelines. Messenger (2004b) recommends that most prizes be in the Adopt a runway $20 to $30 range, and include items such as gift cards, FOD Community organizations can be invited to adopt a hats and other clothing items, or a free dinner for two. Grand runway or ramp, and the airport can periodically close prize drawings may include a set of FOD control tools, theatre that pavement to allow the sponsor to clean the area of tickets, or tickets to local athletic events. Airports may find debris. it useful to survey personnel to gather additional ideas. In any Committee tours event, prizes should be advertised when promoting FOD By allowing a FOD committee to hold a meeting as awareness or FOD special events. they tour the AOA members may be able to identify problem areas or issues. This knowledge will allow In addition, airports may implement promotional tools the committee to better formulate strategies to prevent such as FOD seminars, FOD workshops or conferences, FOD at the airport. FOD lessons-learned, FOD bulletin boards, safety report- Incentive program ing drop-boxes, and electronic reporting through websites Allows personnel to nominate an employee who has or e-mail. Airports may also find it useful to develop meth- been especially effective at removing or preventing ods to exchange safety-related information with other air- FOD, whereby that employee is rewarded with a gift port operators. card or other incentive. Caught in the act CURRENT AIRPORT TRAINING, PROMOTION, By rewarding employees on the spot for effective AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOD removal/prevention, the motivation to continue being proactive in this regard should persist. Programs and Practices in Use Cleanest gate award Personnel with the cleanest gate area may be rewarded When queried about the types of FOD awareness programs and practices currently in use, participating airports shared a with the "Cleanest Gate of the Day Award." FOD holiday tree wide variety of programs. As seen in Figure 35, the most com- mon method for promoting FOD awareness is through letters, Personnel can decorate trees during the holiday season notices, or bulletins. To stay abreast of current best practices, with debris that has been collected during the year. many participating airports also make use of methods to FOD poster contest exchange FOD information with other airport operators. How- Personnel can submit designs for posters to be dis- ever, this method of information exchange is less common played around the workplace. among smaller airports. Almost one-third also use FOD bul- Guess the number of FOD items in the jar letin boards, safety reporting drop-boxes, or electronic report- Smaller pieces of FOD can be collected, retained, ing through websites or e-mail. counted, and placed in a plastic jar. Personnel can then guess the number of items in a jar, while also getting a better idea of the types of FOD col- Level of Importance lected. Entering individuals into a prize drawing and awarding t-shirts to winners may be appreciated by Airports were also queried about the level of importance var- personnel. ious groups at the airport place on promoting and supporting FOD awareness test FOD awareness, as well as ensuring that debris are discovered A 10 to 15 question multiple-choice test based on the and promptly removed. As seen in Figure 36, participating FOD management program or FOD Standard Oper- airports indicated that airport operations personnel place the ating Procedure can be developed. highest importance on FOD awareness. Airport management By placing these tests in a central location near a and airport maintenance personnel also place a high emphasis drop-box, personnel can challenge their knowledge on FOD awareness. According to participating airports, some- and enter to win various prizes. what less importance is placed on FOD awareness by other FOD inventories groups, such as air carriers, hangar tenants, concessionaires, By sorting FOD collected from the AOA, an airport and FBOs and ground support companies. can possibly identify the company/personnel respon- sible for generating the debris and ask them to con- Participation sider the importance of good housekeeping practices. FOD crossword puzzle To be successful, a FOD management program requires partic- A crossword puzzle of FOD terms can be developed, ipation by more than airport operations personnel. To guide the with those personnel correctly completing the puzzle level of involvement by others, airports were asked which ten- eligible to win prizes. ants play an active part in the FOD management program.

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43 FOD letters, notices, bulletins 52% Method to exchange info with airport... 36% FOD bulletin boards, safety reporting... 30% FOD lessons-learned 22% Tenant meetings 10% FOD walks 8% FOD seminars 8% New hire training 6% Ops/staff meetings 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% FIGURE 35 FOD awareness programs and practices in use. Note: Participants were able to select all that apply. Thus, percentages do not total 100%. According to participating airports, air carriers and FBOs of participating airports have no specific person in charge of the played the most active role. However, hangar tenants, ground airport's FOD management program. Not one respondent indi- support companies, and military operators also played signif- cated that this duty was carried out by an outside consultant. icant roles, with concessionaires playing a very minor role. When analyzing responses to this issue by airport hub size, it is common among all airports other than large hubs to have no specific person in charge of the FOD management program. Additional Practices Likewise, it is most common among large hubs to have the FOD management duties carried out by a current employee as FOD Manager part of existing job duties. Only 17% of participating airports mentioned that they employ a FOD manager with responsibility for the airport's Training Program FOD management program. One-half of respondents explained that these FOD management duties are carried out by an To determine if airports have a training program for the purpose employee as part of their existing job responsibilities. One-third of increasing employee awareness of the causes and effects of Airport operations personnel 86% Airport management 80% Airport maintenance personnel 78% FBOs, Ground support companies 62% Air carriers 58% Hangar tenants 48% Concessionnaires 22% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% FIGURE 36 Importance placed on FOD awareness programs. Note: Participants were able to select all that apply. Thus, percentages do not total 100%.

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44 FOD and promoting active employee participation in eliminat- tions, 42% said there had been no adaptation. Of the adapta- ing causes of foreign object damage, airports were asked if they tion that has taken place, the use of more frequent inspections currently operate a FOD training program. Almost one-half appeared to be the most common (33%). (47%) of respondents indicated they do have a FOD training program, whereas 53% do not. Additional Resources Quality Assurance When presented with the possibility of acquiring additional resources for enhancing a FOD management program, more When queried about the methods used by airports to ensure than 70% indicated they would acquire equipment or technol- the quality of a FOD management program, more than three- ogy for detection and/or removal. The second and third most quarters of participants explained that management oversight common answers, respectively, were more frequent inspec- was used. More than half also indicated that initial and recur- tions and more effective training of personnel. rent training was used. Only 24% relied on equipment, tech- nology, or internal audits to ensure quality. Liability Adaptations During Low Visibility and Nighttime Concerning the liability associated with FOD hazards, one question asked participating airports how many insurance or Of concern with any FOD management program is the abil- other claims resulting from FOD had been made at their air- ity of personnel to detect and remove debris during reduced port during the past 24 months by air carriers, FBOs, or oth- visibility and nighttime conditions. When asked how their ers. The vast majority (71%) indicated that no claims had airport had adapted its FOD management program to ensure been filed, whereas 10% indicated that fewer than five claims effectiveness during reduced visibility and nighttime condi- had been filed; almost 15% were not sure.