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65
6.3 Mass Mix Length Effect (Beside zone increases, the lateral resistance gradually increases in a
the Cap) on Lateral Resistance rather consistent fashion. Figure 6-9 provides a plot of the
improvement ratio as a function of the length of the mass mix
The third parametric study involved an investigation of the block in the direction of the lateral loading relative to the vir-
length of the mass mix block in the direction of the loading gin clay resistance at a lateral displacement of 1.5 in. The
on the increase in lateral pile group resistance. In this case, the improvement ratio is 1.36, 1.42, 1.47, 1.54, and 1.60 for the
mass mix block also was assumed to be beside the pile cap but mass mix lengths of 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 ft, respectively.
not in contact with the piles. The depth of the block was fixed As observed in Figure 6-9, the improvement ratio increases
at 12.5 ft and the width was taken as 9.0 ft perpendicular to almost linearly with the mass mix length. This is considerably
the lateral load direction (4.5 ft in the FEM model due to sym- different from the nonlinear trend lines obtained from the
metry), which is equal to the pile cap width. Other soil and parametric studies relative to mass mix depth presented in
pile parameters were kept the same as described in Section Sections 6.1 and 6.2. The correlation equation shows that
5.4. Finite element analyses were then performed for mass each additional foot of length leads to an additional increase
mix block lengths ranging from 3 ft to 7 ft in the direction of in the improvement ratio of about 0.06. Since the passive
lateral loading as illustrated in Figure 6-7. pressure area is the same for various lengths of the mass mixes,
The load-displacement curves calculated with the FEM the increase in the lateral capacity is considered to be a result of
model are plotted in Figure 6-8. As the length of the mass mix the increase in the shear area of the mass mix block. However,
Figure 6-7. Mass mix length intervals beside cap for parametric study.