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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 53 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson tired) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR MEMBERS Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Metropolitan Airports Commission Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA MEMBERS William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kevin C. Dolliole Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Unison Consulting Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley John K. Duval Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Austin Commercial, LP Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Kitty Freidheim Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Freidheim Consulting Steve Grossman Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Jacksonville Aviation Authority Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Tom Jensen Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO National Safe Skies Alliance Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Catherine M. Lang Atlanta, GA Federal Aviation Administration Gina Marie Lindsey David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Los Angeles World Airports Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Carolyn Motz Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Airport Design Consultants, Inc. Lafayette, IN Richard Tucker Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Huntsville International Airport Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Paula P. Hochstetler Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airport Consultants Council Sabrina Johnson C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA National Association of State Aviation Officials Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Transportation Research Board Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation SECRETARY Officials, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Transportation Research Board Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of June 2011.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 53 A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning Gresham, Smith and Partners Columbus, OH IN PARTNERSHIP WITH Ricondo & Associates, Inc. Chicago, IL AND Synergy Consultants, Inc. Seattle, WA Subscriber Categories Aviation Environment Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 53 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 02-11 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21342-4 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2011935075 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 53 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Tiana M. Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andra Briere, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-11 PANEL Field of Environment Janet Kieler, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO (Chair) Susan Aha, Port of Portland, Portland, OR Susan Royer Baum, Kilfrost Incorporated, Coral Springs, FL Bruce D. Campbell, American Airlines, Inc., Fort Worth, TX Elaine Karnes, Southwest Airlines Co., Dallas, TX Steve Sletten, PBS&J, Madison, WI Bryan C. Wagoner, Wayne County Airport Authority, Detroit, MI Edward Melisky, FAA Liaison Michon Washington, FAA Liaison Kevin W. Welsh, Air Transport Association of America, Inc., Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 53 is a handbook that identifies appropriate responses to a variety of water resource issues affecting airport planning and development. The handbook includes options for setting up a water resource management program and outlines the steps necessary to implement that program in response to local conditions. The handbook also presents strate- gies for including water resource planning and management as part of a broader life-cycle planning and development process. Specific worksheets are included on the regulatory framework guiding water resource management along with a set of fact sheets for defining and categorizing a broad set of water resource issues and appropriate responses. Finally, the handbook provides an overview of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) procedures that control environmental reviews affecting airport development. The contractor's final report summarizes the research approach used to generate the handbook and is available on the TRB website at http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=2574. The handbook will be of particular interest to those involved in the earliest stages of plan- ning for airport development projects, including airport planners, design engineers, and environmental compliance personnel. It can also be used as a guide for managing response to water resource issues throughout the project development and implementation process-- from initial planning to operation of the constructed system. The handbook provides summaries of key information for those particularly interested in an overview of the sub- ject matter as well as a significant level of detail for those that are actually involved in man- aging water resource issues on a daily basis. It also includes many tips and insights gleaned from experience on actual projects. As air travel demand increases, many airports are faced with the need to enhance capac- ity; but planning for increased capacity often brings with it a challenge of balancing busi- ness concerns and environmental protection. Enhanced capacity can provide environmen- tal benefits by helping to eliminate congestion in the air and on the ground. Implementing those capacity improvements, however, must address environmental "costs" as well, includ- ing potential impacts on water resources. Failure to address possible water resource issues effectively and obtain necessary permits and approvals in a timely fashion can result in sig- nificant project delays. Recognizing the growing need to address complex environmental issues and their effect on airport development planning, ACRP Report 53 has been designed to help air- port planners and operators better understand the wide range of water resource issues facing airports and how these issues can affect the timeliness of project approvals, real project costs, and implementation of proposed projects or programs. Simultaneous con- sideration of potential water resource constraints along with planning airport capacity

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enhancement projects will benefit the entire aviation system. Therefore, airport opera- tors and planners need guidance in recognizing and responding to potential impacts that capacity enhancement activities may have on water resources. A concern that often pre- vents early integration is the need to allocate sufficient funds for identifying water resource issues before the project is underway. The decision to allocate funds is essen- tially risk-based. Failure to characterize water resource issues adequately can result in a series of problems and delays that has the potential to cost more than the initial invest- ment in water resource issue characterization.

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CONTENTS 1 Section 1 Handbook Overview 1 1.1 Introduction and Background 2 1.2 Handbook Objectives 4 1.2.1 Handbook Structure 5 1.2.2 Handbook Use 9 1.3 Summary of Handbook Guidance 9 1.3.1 Overview of Guidance to Planners 10 1.3.2 Overview of Recommended Aiport-Specific Water Resource Issue Management Program 10 1.3.3 Overview of Guidance on Integrated Life-Cycle Management of Water Resource Issues Within the Project Implementation Process 12 1.3.4 Overview of Guidance in Water Resource Issue Fact Sheets 13 Water Resource Issue Fact Sheet Summaries 14 Summary of Fact Sheet 1: Physical Impacts to Wetlands and Other Surface Waters 16 Summary of Fact Sheet 2: Surface Water and Groundwater Quality 18 Summary of Fact Sheet 3: Storm Water Quantity and Floodplains 20 Summary of Fact Sheet 4: Hazardous Wildlife Attractants 22 Summary of Fact Sheet 5: Aquatic Life and Habitat 24 Summary of Fact Sheet 6: Coastal Zones and Barriers 26 Summary of Fact Sheet 7: Wild and Scenic Rivers 28 Section 2 Establishing a Water Resource Issue Management Program 28 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 Water Resource Issue Information Catalog 29 2.2.1 Defining Key Terms 31 2.2.2 Creating a Water Resource Inventory 33 2.2.3 Water Resource Impact and Issue Checklist 35 2.2.4 Defining Core Regulatory Requirements 37 2.2.5 Creating a Mitigation Facility Inventory 39 2.3 Water Resource Issue Management Plan 39 2.3.1 Project Management Roles and Responsibilities 41 2.3.2 Protocols for Managing the NEPA Process 43 2.3.3 Protocols for Integrating Water Resource Issue Management and Development Project Implementation 44 Section 3 Strategies for Integrating Water Resource Issue Management with the Project Implementation Process 44 3.1 Introduction 44 3.2 Recurring Elements of Water Resource Issue Management at Each Phase

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45 3.2.1 Step 1: Characterizing Water Resources and the Water Resource Impacts from Development Projects 46 3.2.2 Step 2: Defining Compliance Requirements for Individual Issues 49 3.2.3 Step 3: Assessing Effects of Compliance Requirements on Development Project for Individual Water Resource Isssues 50 3.2.4 Step 4: Consolidating Water Resource Issue Effects and Revision of Project 51 3.3 Conceptual Planning Phase Management Strategies 51 3.3.1 Development Project Management in Conceptual Planning Phase 52 3.3.2 Water Resource Issue Management in Conceptual Planning Phase 56 3.4 Detailed Planning Phase Management Strategies 56 3.4.1 Development Project Management in Detailed Planning Phase 56 3.4.2 Water Resource Issue Management in Detailed Planning Phase 56 3.5 Project Execution Phase 56 3.5.1 Development Project Management in Project Execution Phase 59 3.5.2 Water Resource Issue Management in Project Execution Phase 61 References 62 Abbreviations and Acronyms Used Throughout This Handbook A-1 Appendix A Supplementary Worksheets B-1 Appendix B Water Resource Issue Fact Sheets C-1 Appendix C Overview of the NEPA Process Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.