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16 A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning Summary of Fact Sheet 2: Surface Water and Groundwater Quality The term "surface water," from a water resource perspective, can include streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, harbors, territorial seas, waters of the contiguous zone, and oceans. Groundwater is a natural resource that is relied upon as a source of drinking water for much of the United States (2). Because surface water and groundwater have a clear relationship and are primarily distin- guished by their location, they are jointly discussed in a single fact sheet. Airport development projects can affect surface water and groundwater quality as a result of changes in the site characteristics affecting storm water discharges from the development site, changes in pollutants associated with construction, changes in pollutants associated with subse- quent operations, and controls required to mitigate for those changes. Often the impacts to sur- face water quality at airports are related to changes in the quality, quantity, and discharge location of storm water runoff. Above ground and underground contamination sources can also impact groundwater quality. Activities that may affect surface water and groundwater quality are regulated primarily through the CWA and the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). When assessing the applicability and impacts of these regulations on development projects, it is important to understand that the terms "surface water" and "groundwater" can have very specific regulatory meanings that may not always correspond to the general understanding of the terms. Changes to the characteristics of discharges to surface waters and groundwater associated with a development project may be subject to existing airport-specific permit conditions associated with those regulations. New or amended permits allowing the discharges under specified conditions may also be required for the execution of the project. Project planning and design considerations typically associated with surface water and groundwater quality include the following: Will the location(s) for discharge of surface waters be changed? Will new or additional pollutants be exposed to storm water runoff as a result of the project? Will the locations where pollutants are exposed to storm water change? Will changes in storm water runoff quantities or flow routing affect pollutant concentrations? What is the timeframe for assessing water quality issues, preparing permit applications, and receiving permit conditions from regulators? Will storage and treatment be necessary to meet regulatory criteria, where will it be located, and how much space will be required? The process for assessing core regulatory requirements, determining the measures needed for compliance, and reducing the effects of managing surface water and groundwater quality issues on the development project are presented in Fact Sheet 2 in Appendix B. A summary of the guid- ance for reducing those project impacts follows. Guidance for Reducing Project Impacts from Managing Issues Associated with Surface Water and Groundwater Quality Characterization of Obtain buy-in from all stakeholders on the baseline Discharges data for future pollutant discharges. Modeling, Calculations, Submit modeling plans to regulators for approval and Analyses prior to executing work.

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Handbook Overview 17 Wasteload Allocation Perform calculations for assessing receiving stream Analysis for Assessing assimilation capacities and allowable effluent Water Quality-Based limits and submit to regulator for review. Effluent Limits Siting for Controls Consider potential land areas needed for storm water storage and treatment in the earliest plan- ning stages. Seek to locate the development project in areas that will not impact surface or groundwater resources and not attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. Unintended Impacts Verify that meeting compliance requirements asso- ciated with surface water quality for one devel- opment project do not inadvertently trigger additional compliance requirements for others. Design Implementation Provide alternatives that avoid or minimize impacts to surface water or groundwater and design proj- ects that do not require unique engineering, con- struction, or monitoring needs. Perform detailed cost analyses that consider both capital and oper- ating costs when considering treatment alterna- tives for storm water containing pollutants. Permit Acquisition Notify regulatory agencies early in the process and discuss key issues and permit requirements. Define National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits and conditions prior to design to avoid changes during design. Under- stand that controls and mitigation measures may not be able to be assessed until regulatory condi- tions are defined. Determine times to prepare permit applications, statutory schedule and review requirements, and expected review time by regulatory agencies. Submit permit to install applications as far in advance of construction as possible once design documentation is available. Storm Water Management Seek to minimize the volume of storm water that must be managed to achieve compliance. Stakeholder Coordination Coordinate with stakeholders such as airlines, vari- ous airport departments, and nearby communi- ties to avoid multiple iterations of permitting and design.