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24 A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning Summary of Fact Sheet 6: Coastal Zones and Barriers The category "coastal zones and barriers" encompasses the impacts of airport development projects on coastal resources and the associated effects on water quality, biotic habitat, public safety, and infrastructure. Regulation of coastal zones and barriers occurs primarily through · The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) (regulated under 15 C.F.R. 923 and 930) as amended by the Coastal Zone Management Reauthorization Amendments of 1990 (23 C.F.R. 650.211) and the Coastal Zone Protection Act of 1996 and · The Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) as amended by the Coastal Barrier Improvement Act of 1990. The CZMA requires that any development projects with the potential to impact a state's coastal zone comply with requirements of the federally approved state coastal zone management program (if the project is being performed or funded by the federal government). The CZMA is implemented by the states, with federal oversight from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Airports performing development along coastal areas need to consider the potential for impacts to coastal zones and barriers. Construction of facilities and infrastructure (e.g., sea walls, jetties, channels, and piers) can have a direct physical impact on coastal resources. Development along the shoreline can also disrupt natural coastline processes (e.g., barrier island migration). Airport projects that change airport features such as land use, vegetation, grading, and increased storm water runoff can result in localized increases in erosion and sedimentation and in the destabilization of the coastline. New development projects also have the potential to alter water quality and quantity. Nonpoint source industrial runoff and point source storm water discharges may contribute to degradation of water quality along the coast. Project planning and design considerations typically associated with coastal zone and barrier issues include the following: · Are there designated coastal zones or barriers within the vicinity of the project? · What local and state agencies manage compliance with coastal zone and barrier regulations and what are the requirements? · What information is required by the agencies to provide approval for the requested activities? · How long will it take to acquire the required information and what is the expected timeframe for agency response? · Can possible mitigation needs and options be assessed in the early planning stages to deter- mine whether they might impact the site, cost, or schedule? The process for assessing core regulatory requirements, determining the measures needed for compliance, and reducing the effects of managing coastal zone and barrier issues on the devel- opment project are presented in Fact Sheet 6 in Appendix B. A summary of the guidance for reducing those project impacts follows. Guidance for Reducing Project Impacts from Managing Issues Associated with Coastal Zones and Barriers Data Collection Consult with state agency to confirm coastal zone boundaries.
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Handbook Overview 25 Design Development and Consider siting or design alternatives that avoid or Control Siting minimize impacts to coastal zones or barriers. Coordinate on the siting and design of controls and discharges associated with other water resource issues that are associated with coastal zone impacts. Stakeholder Coordination Coordinate with state agency to determine whether there are controls or design modifications that may minimize potential coastal impacts. Consult with state agencies to identify required permits and approvals and potential timeframes to be incorporated into project planning. Documentation Submit complete documentation associated with consistency evaluation and in accordance with state-specific requirements. Construction Ensure agencies fully complete consultation, coor- dination, and permitting authorizations before conducting project work. Mitigation Coordinate with state agency to determine whether mitigation may be required to address coastal impacts.