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OCR for page 35
Establishing a Water Resource Issue Management Program 35 Table 2. Water resource issues potentially associated with project siting and construction characteristics. Characteristic Defining Features Potential Water Resource Issue Project Total project footprint Surface water quality Dimensions Length/width/shape Physical impacts to wetlands Depth and other surface waters Groundwater quality Floodplains Aquatic life and habitat Project Proximity to coast Coastal zones and barriers Location Demolition requirements Aquatic life and habitat Proximity to existing wetlands Floodplains Proximity to existing streams Physical impacts to wetlands Topography and other surface waters Proximity to existing Groundwater quality endangered species habitat Surface water quality Groundwater characteristics Hazardous wildlife Surface water characteristics attractants Surface Final open water features Surface water quality Characteristics Final groundcover/pavement/ Hazardous wildlife land use attractants Area of earthwork during construction Subsurface Utility connections required Physical impacts to wetlands Characteristics Subsurface piping and other surface waters Depth/excavation Surface water quality requirements Groundwater quality 2.2.4 Defining Core Regulatory Requirements An additional component of the Water Resource Issue Information Catalog is a summary of the core regulatory Key Notes requirements associated with water resource issues that might be relevant to the airport. Airport operators should The core regulatory requirements associated with use the information from the Water Resource Inventory each water resource issue category should be rela- and Project Characteristics Checklist as the means to iden- tively similar from project to project. Documenting tify which Water Resource Issue Categories should have the core regulatory requirements for each category core regulatory requirements summarized. will add consistency to the approach and develop a greater depth of knowledge for the staff. To summarize the core regulatory requirements for water resource issues at an airport, operators should be familiar with individual water resourcerelated regulations. Water resource regulations exist at federal, state, regional, and local levels to protect water resources and the many beneficial uses they provide. The regulatory protections address a variety of impacts to water resources, including the following: Water resources such as lakes, streams, reservoirs, and groundwater aquifers are frequent sources of drinking water for humans and animal populations, as well as habitats for aquatic

OCR for page 35
36 A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning Table 3. Water resource issues potentially associated with project ongoing activities. Characteristic Defining Features Potential Water Resource Issue Project Total project footprint Groundwater quality Dimensions Length/width/shape Storm water quantity Depth Surface water quality Hazardous wildlife attractants Aquatic life and habitat Surface Surface type Hazardous wildlife Characteristics Water attractants Land Aquatic life and habitat Perviousness Storm water quantity Topography Surface water quality Activities on surface when operational Groundwater quality Exposure to precipitation Storm water storage Fueling Deicing Cleaning/washing Pesticide/herbicide application Material storage Maintenance Parking Treatment processes Subsurface Activities below surface Groundwater quality Characteristics Storm water conveyance onto Surface water quality project site Underdrains Fuel transmission Material storage Areas of contamination/ hazardous materials and terrestrial species. Degradation in water quality can endanger human health as well as neg- atively impact the health, population, and biodiversity of terrestrial and aquatic species. Water resource impacts have the potential to decrease the scenic and recreational values of certain water resources, including rivers and coastal zones, with a potential for impacts to tourism industries and local economies. Economic impacts can result when water resource degradation impacts fishing, agriculture, and other industries that depend on the water resource. Property damage and loss of human life can result from flooding caused by impacts to storm water quantity, floodplains, and wetlands, as well as from increased storm damage caused by impacts to wetlands, coastal zones, and barriers. Regulations in the United States provide a variety of means to protect the beneficial uses of water resources, including numeric criteria defining the uses, narrative restrictions, prohibitions on activities and construction locations, and specific conditions limiting degradation of the resource. The regulations define the processes used by airports and regulations to assess water resource impacts and how mitigation for impacts must be addressed. Managing the regulatory environment for airports can be complex because regulations can exist at multiple governmental levels and contain ambiguities and conflicts that can have various