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Strategies for Integrating Water Resource Issue Management with the Project Implementation Process 45 PROJECT CHARACTERISTICS WATER RESOURCE ISSUE COMPLIANCE NEEDS Figure 4. Project and water resource issue relationship. small-scale approach requires a greater degree of coordination and probably additional finan- cial resources in the early stages of planning. The intent is that this investment of resources would reduce the risks to project function, costs, schedule, and airport operations as a whole. While each phase of development project implementation has its own unique needs for man- agement of water resource issues, the planning can be reduced to a common set of four steps that recur in each phase. The steps are shown in the corresponding inset as well as in Figure 2 (see Section 1.3.3). Recurring Steps in the Integration of Development Project Implementation and Water Resource Issue Management 1. Characterize the water resources and potential development project impacts on those resources. 2. Define/reassess the compliance requirements. 3. Assess the effects of complying with regulatory requirements for individual water resource issues on the development project. 4. Consolidate and assess the effects of complying with the full suite of regula- tory requirements for all water resource issues on the development project. Typically, each of these four steps occurs at each project implementation phase. The end result is an adaptive management system in which the implementation of the development project is adapted in response to information obtained from the management of water resource issues and vice versa. The work level and significance of the tasks will vary as the project progresses through- out the project implementation process. The four recurring steps are discussed in the following subsections. Recommendations for planning considerations and planning actions are provided for each element within the three development project implementation phases. It is not expected that those leading the planning efforts would necessarily perform these activities, but they can facilitate their execution. 3.2.1 Step 1: Characterizing Water Resources and the Water Resource Impacts from Development Projects The most fundamental aspect of planning for water resource management in development project planning is the characterization of the water resources. The characterization has two indi- vidual, but related, elements: 1. Characterizing the water resource as it exists on potential sites and 2. Characterizing how the development project will impact the water resource.