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50 A Handbook for Addressing Water Resource Issues Affecting Airport Development Planning resource issues are not foreseen early in the planning process, they can contribute to difficulties getting timely NEPA approvals, affect the construction schedules for controls, and, in general, increase costs. 3.2.4 Step 4: Consolidating Water Resource Issue Effects and Revision of Project Effectively managing water resource issues in a planning project requires two important considerations: 1. Understanding and managing the effects of individual resource issues on development proj- ect implementation and 2. Integrating effects from multiple water resource issues into a cohesive planning strategy. As discussed in the previous steps, at each phase of the development project implementation, the individual water resource issue impacts need to be assessed and planned for independently because each issue has unique regulatory requirements and unique mitigations measures. While the concerns and planning items associated with individual water resource issues are a necessary baseline approach, an airport can most effectively improve its development project implemen- tation process by considering the synergistic effects of managing multiple water resource issues. One of the principal reasons why an integrated consideration of the causes and effects of mul- tiple water resource issues is recommended is because the same development project character- istics tend to cause multiple issues. For example, an increase in impervious area from a new runway can affect both surface water quality and storm water quantity. Even though those water resource issues are governed by different regulations, the controls and measures needed to achieve compliance can sometimes be considered jointly. This process involves first consolidat- ing the various water resource issues and the potential project impacts--consolidating manage- ment techniques where possible--and then developing an integrated planning strategy that incorporates these techniques. As airport operators begin to implement elements of water resource planning, they should begin to consolidate the potential effects on the project from multiple water resource issues. The consolidation will provide the information to assess the following: Whether the combined effects from multiple water resource issues provide a more significant driver for avoiding impacts to water resources; The options for implementing compromises in the development project functional design that benefit more than one impacted water resource or make compliance less challenging and less costly; The need to change nonfunctional elements of the development project design to accommo- date controls and mitigation measures (e.g., storm water piping near a runway); and The options for integrating controls from multiple issues (e.g., storm water quality and quan- tity management). Consolidation of considerations for the various water resource issues should include the following: 1. Project characteristics or features associated with issues--a review of project characteris- tics or features associated with the various issues may allow the identification of a particular project aspect that can be modified to reduce potential impacts. 2. Detailed steps required for compliance--a review of compliance requirements, including required permits or approvals, may reveal some synergy for related efforts and the need for coordination on issues that will be regulated by the same authority.