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107 APPENDIX D Existing Multimodal Corridor Case Studies To understand the characteristics of multimodal highway 11-mile Transitway (for buses and car pools) is elevated over the corridors, how they function, and what the best configurations Harbor Freeway. These facilities are important complements might be for future deployments, this study surveyed existing to the rail and bus rapid transit systems; the regional HOV multimodal highway corridors. The survey focused mostly on and freeway network serves the second largest urban region those within the United States. The following criteria were used in the United States. to screen and select these case studies: Los Angeles Harbor Freeway (I-110)/ Access-limited highway facility (freeway) Harbor Transitway Corridor High-capacity transit facility (heavy, light, or commuter rail transit, or bus rapid transit) Limits Transit and highway should run roughly parallel and be no From: Artesia Transit Center more than one-half mile apart To: 37th Street Transitway Station Data collection on existing multimodal highway corridors Context and Project Development History was performed using a combination of web searches, discus- sions with team members, and input from the project's panel In the mid-1970s, Southern California's Regional Transit members. District (SCRTD), California Department of Transporta- tion (Caltrans), and other regional transportation agencies began to study the prospects for a regional rapid transit system Multimodal Corridors that would include both bus and rail options along major in the United States regional transportation corridors. In 1976, the U.S. Depart- Los Angeles Region ment of Transportation (US DOT) approved $11.08 million for studying these options, with most of those funds (about The Los Angeles urbanized area has a population of about $7.8 million) allocated to Caltrans to study freeway transit and 12 million, of which more than 10 million live in Los Angeles highway-related alternatives. As the decade progressed, inter- County and 4 million reside within the city of Los Angeles. est in freeway corridor transit options, in particular those Employment in the 20 square mile central business district involving bus rapid transit along freeway facilities, intensified. exceeds 200,000. Many daily travelers are served by extensive In 1978, Caltrans and SCRTD selected two high-priority cor- freeway and public transit systems. ridors, the Harbor Freeway and Santa Ana corridors. After The area has more than 40 miles of bus and rail transit study and community outreach, the Harbor corridor transit- lines located in or alongside freeways, although about half way project was selected based in part on the low costs of of the mileage is also used by car and van pools. Most of the construction estimated for the project and the lack of any 20-mile Green Line LRT is in the median of the Century significant neighborhood opposition in the corridor to the Freeway (I-110). Some three miles of the 14-mile Gold Line LRT proposed project.1 In 1980, Caltrans completed a Draft Initial are in the median of the Foothills Freeway (I-210). The 12-mile San Bernardino Transitway (buses and three-person car pools) operates within the median or alongside the I-10 freeway. An 1 Interview with Frank Quon, Caltrans, 11/12/09.

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108 Study/Environmental Assessment for the Harbor Freeway Cor- ridor. Five years later, the final EIS was complete, the adminis- trative hurdles had been overcome, and the project was ready for construction.2 But more delays were in the offing, as federal funding constraints led Caltrans to recommend that the tran- sitway project (which would involve the construction of ele- vated bus lanes over the existing Harbor Freeway) be delayed.3 By 1989, funding had been secured and construction began on the Harbor Transitway.4 Caltrans was identified as the lead agency, but the partnership included SCRTD, the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), and others. No joint powers agreements or other new project-specific agencies were formed for the project.5 Construction was largely complete by 1996 and the official opening of the Transitway to buses and carpoolers occurred on June 26th 1996.6 Source: Courtesy of METRANS Transportation Center. Design Features Figure D-1. 37th Street Station in the median of the Carpool and transit lanes were installed in a separate road- I-110 Freeway/Harbor Transitway. way as part of rebuilding the Harbor Freeway Interstate 110. The lanes extend about 11 miles, and seven bus stations are provided at key intersecting roads. Two HOV lanes are pro- median. Since there are no sound barriers between the station vided each direction from Martin Luther King Boulevard to platforms and the adjacent freeway lanes (see Figure D-1), Interstate 105; single lanes run between that point and State bus riders waiting on the platforms endure very noisy condi- Route 91 in each direction. The transitway right-of-way, which tions (70 to 90 decibels).9 As buses approach the stations they primarily runs down the median of the Harbor Freeway, was cross over so that bus doors are alongside the station plat- already owned by Caltrans,7 so very little land acquisition was forms.10 Buses entering stations are given the right-of-way. required. The two-lane transitway is generally elevated above Pedestrian access to the Transitway's stations is difficult, in the general purpose lanes. This elevated alignment was specif- part due to their placement within the freeway right-of-way, ically chosen in order to minimize the environmental im- but further compounded by inadequate signage. Improved pacts on the corridor's neighborhoods.8 signage would better direct and encourage pedestrians to venture into the automobile-dominated freeway environment. Stations Therefore, many people in the Transitway corridor may not be aware of the existence of these stations, let alone how to In general, transit stations on the Harbor Freeway are con- access them. This lack of pedestrian signage is in stark contrast sistent in their design with all but the Artesia Station (located to the ample number of signboards indicating directions to the adjacent to the freeway/transitway) located in the freeway automobile driver for the 110 Freeway.11 Pedestrians are further discouraged from accessing the stations from surrounding 2Banerjee, T., et al., "Highway Oriented Transit System: A Comprehensive Land neighborhoods due to narrow and unsafe station-area side- Use/Transportation Strategy to Improve Transit Service Delivery A Case Study walks. According to a study of the Transitway's design and how of (I-110) Harbor Transitway Stations," METRANS Transportation Center, it affects patronage, ". . . most of the stations look empty and April 30, 2001. forlorn, and provide little chance for people to interact with 3Trombley, W. "El Monte Busway Is Rousing but Solitary Success in L.A," Los Angeles Times, September 26, 1985. http://articles.latimes.com/1985-09-26/ each other," and, "The waiting areas are not accommodated news/mn-1357_1_el-monte with sufficiently attractive features or amenities, such as art, 4Feldman, P. "Harbor Freeway Double-Decking Gets Under Way," Los Angeles sculptures, or landscaping."12 Times, April 20, 1989. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/66438055. html?dids=66438055:66438055&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&da te=Apr+20%2C+1989&author=PAUL+FELDMAN&pub=Los+Angeles+Times +%28pre-1997+Fulltext%29&desc=Harbor+Freeway+Double-Decking+Gets+ 9Banerjee, T., et al., "Freeway Bus Station Area Development: Critical Evaluation Under+Way&pqatl=google and Design Guidelines--A Case Study of (I-110) Harbor Transitway Stations," 5Interview with Frank Quon, Caltrans, 11/12/09. METRANS Transportation Center, Metrans Project 00-12, July 1, 2005. 6Simon, R. "Street Smart; High Rolling; New Elevated Roadway Offers Fast, 10Note: if buses also had doors on the left side, the crossing could be eliminated Quiet Ride Above Harbor Freeway," Los Angeles Times, June 26, 1996. and the operation simplified. 7Interview with Frank Quon, Caltrans, 11/12/09. 11Ibid, Banerjee, T., et al., 2005. 8Interview with Frank Quon, Caltrans, 11/12/09. 12Ibid, Banerjee, T., et al., 2005, p. 5-1

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109 Operations biggest problem (25%); (4) The presence of trash at the sta- tions (22.%); and (5) The presence of homeless people at Buses using the Transitway include six LA Metro and two the stations (17%).14 Orange County Express bus routes. City of Gardena and City of Torrance buses also operate on sections of the Transitway. As with other busways, various routes use portions of the Benefits Transitway and then disperse to other communities in the Buses using the Transitway average 35 mph. This speed region. The land use is heavily commercial and industrial at substantially exceeds the 15 to 20 mph express bus speeds either end of the Transitway with some residential land use in achieved on city streets. between. Metro Routes 444, 446, 447, 450, and 460 use most of the Transitway. Route 445 uses the Transitway and the HOV lanes; Los Angeles Green Line/Century Freeway Corridor it runs from Exposition Park to San Pedro. Orange County Express bus lines 701 and 721 go from Limits Huntington Beach and Fullerton, respectively, to downtown From: Norwalk Station Los Angeles on the Harbor Transitway. To: Redondo Station Service is concentrated in peak periods. Buses running along the Transitway include Orange County Transit bus lines and six LA Metro Express buses. The bus running times for Context and Project Development History the facility total 19 minutes--resulting in an average speed of The Green Line was built as a precondition for building the 35 miles per hour (mph). Century Freeway (I-105) and was part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1979. It serves the communities of Patronage Manhattan Beach, El Segundo, Hawthorne, Lynwood, South 4,100 average weekday boardings (estimated for study Gate, Los Angeles, and Norwalk. corridor) on the Transitway.13 While the Century Freeway was established in plans as Highway I-110: early as 1958, the changing development patterns of the 298,000 vehicle-trips per weekday (estimated for study Los Angeles region meant that the freeway's path would corridor) on I-110. have to cut through established suburban neighborhoods. 387,400 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study The freeway's right-of-way from Norwalk to El Segundo travels corridor) on I-110. through traditionally minority and poor neighborhoods such as Hawthorne, Inglewood, and Downey. While many of the Several factors contribute to the low bus ridership: (1) the freeways previously constructed in the Los Angeles region freeway and Transitway are located in a "gore" between major could take advantage of ample and inexpensive land--often population concentrations; (2) the stations are relatively right-of-way from the recently defunct Interurban transit inaccessible to pedestrians or transferring patrons; (3) the system--the Century Freeway would come to represent the station environment is isolated and is noisy from the passing future of freeway construction in the region in terms of the freeway traffic; (4) service frequency varies widely throughout obstacles faced, the political fights that would occur, and the day; and (5) the Blue Line light rail line is located nearby, the bargains that would be struck.15 runs parallel to the Transitway, runs more frequently, and Beginning in 1958, the California Division of Highways costs less to use. (which later changed its name to Caltrans) proposed and A survey of patrons in 2005 found that the top five prob- studied six alternate alignments for the freeway, all within a few lems they faced using the Harbor Transitway were (1) Ir- blocks of each other. In the mid-1960s, a preferred alignment regular and unreliable frequency of bus service, with was selected and property owners along the proposed path roughly 41 percent of respondents picking it as the primary began to receive notices of their evictions. However, one difficulty; (2) Poor noise protection at the station, with 28 family living in the path of the proposed freeway chose to percent of respondents selecting this as a major problem; fight the plan in court. They were soon joined by the City (3) Poor station area maintenance came in as the third of Hawthorne (which would be bisected by the proposed 13Ridership is for Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Agency (LA MTA) 14 Ibid, Banerjee, T., et al., 2005. bus only. Data for Orange County Transportation Agency (OCTA) buses that 15 Ellars, M. S. "Never Again: The Century Freeway," March 31, 1998, accessed on run along this facility could not be obtained. August 26, 2009, http://msenet.org/three/shell/chambers/century.txt.

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110 alignment), the Sierra Club (which claimed that the region's between the state and the freeway opponents.20 However, air quality would worsen once the freeway was completed, critics of the project argued that the Green Line was not not improve as the State's Environmental Impact Statement justified as a stand-alone transit project and was unduly asserted), and the NAACP as co-litigants. In 1972, their lawsuit placed as a higher priority compared to other regional succeeded in winning an injunction against the project and transit projects as part of a political bargain to build the a court order to conduct a more thorough Environmental Century Freeway. However, Green Line project propo- Impact Statement. After 7 years of study, all parties signed a nents saw it as an opportunity to build both projects at the consent decree that would allow the project to continue, with same time, at a lower total cost.21 modifications. Not until 1981, when several amendments Poor Design of Freeway Median Stations: The Green Line were signed to the consent decree, did construction begin anew. has nine stations located in the median of the Century These critical amendments included the inclusion of the light Freeway, creating aesthetic and physical discouragements rail line down the median of the freeway and the conversion for transit riders to use them. High noise, airborne dirt and of the planned freeway lanes from eight "mixed-flow" to six particulate matter levels on the platforms are generated by with two high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes.16 Construction the adjacent freeway travel lanes. The long walks to the on the Green Line began in 1987 and when completed in 1995, platforms from bus stops, park-and-ride lots, and adjacent cost $718 million dollars.17 communities often include flights of stairs and multiple Since opening, the following three criticisms have been ramps or bridges that cross over or under freeway travel leveled against the Green Line: lanes and other structures. These conditions are generally thought to discourage transit ridership.22 Lack of Connections to Major Activity Centers: The line was constructed in a circumferential alignment to down- Design Features town Los Angeles, meaning it does not serve the region's The 20-mile 14-station Green Line opened in 1995. Some largest activity center. It also skirts the Los Angeles Inter- 16 miles and 9 stations are located in the median of the national (LAX) Airport and relies on a shuttle service to Century Freeway (I-105 between Hawthorne and I-605). take passengers from the nearest station to the terminals.18 The fully grade-separated line interchanges with the Harbor Although originally planned (and partially constructed) to Transitway and with the Blue Line LRT between downtown connect with LAX, there were concerns that the overhead Los Angeles and Long Beach. lines of the rail would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes. Furthermore, the owners of parking lots Stations surrounding LAX were fearful that the train would create competition, since there is ample free parking at numerous Center-island high-platform stations are provided within points along the Green Line. When the project was con- the freeway median. There are about 6,700 park-and-ride spaces ceived in the 1970s, the defense industry employed thou- along the Green Line, of which about 5,500 are at stations sands in the corridor cities of El Segundo and Redondo along I-105. The largest facilities are at the Norwalk Station Beach, but these businesses suffered large contractions and (with 2,050 spaces) and the Imperial Station (with 975 spaces). layoffs, depriving the transit line of a reliable ridership base.19 Inadequate Project Justification: The project was origi- Operations nally conceived in the 1970s in response to opposition to The Green Line operates a single service from 4:30 A.M. to the proposed Century Freeway's route which was planned 12:30 A.M. the following day. A fleet of 34 Light Rail Vehicles to pass through established urban communities. The route (LRVs) is used. Trains run at maximum headways of about would require the acquisition and demolition of hundreds 7 minutes during peak periods and headways up to 20 minutes of homes and businesses. Opponents of the project filed law- during off-peak periods. The end-to-end travel time for the suits to block the freeway. As part of a 1979 court-mandated 20-mile line is 35 minutes. The high operating speeds of consent decree, the Green Line was part of a compromise 20Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- 16Ibid, Ellars, M. S. ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- 17Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007. ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- 21Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007. ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- 18Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007. ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- 22Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007. ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- 19http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Green_Line_%28LACMTA%29 ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007.

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111 about 38 miles per hour are a result of the wide 1.5 mile station Table D-1. A.M. peak hour spacing. access/egress by mode for the Green Line. Patronage Access/ Egress Mode Access Egress 37,000 average weekday boardings (estimated for study Bus 43% 45% Car 28% 5% corridor) on the Green line. Walk 15% 28% century freeway: Blue Line 12% 19% 258,000 vehicle-trips per weekday (estimated for study Other 2% 3% Total 100% 100% corridor) on I-105. 335,400 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study Source: Los Angeles Metro corridor) on I-105. Ridership on the Green Line has grown steadily from an national Airport. The line's eastern terminus is 2 miles short average of 13,650 weekday boardings in 1996 to 37,490 riders of the heavily used Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs Metrolink Station where several Metrolink commuter rail lines operate. Thus, the in 2006. This growth is attributed to a strong feeder bus line has no major anchor--usually a prerequisite for rail transit network, high operating speeds, and connectivity with the development. Some contend this is a train "from nowhere to Blue Line23. nowhere." However, the line's surprisingly high ridership A review of Fiscal 20062007 rail passenger weekday activ- levels have been attributed to ity by station indicates the following: A strong bus feeder network providing a steady supply of The largest eastbound boardings are at Imperial/Wilmington transit riders, [Blue Line Connection (3,160)] and Aviation (2,560). The survival and partial rebound of the defense and aero- The largest westbound boardings are at Imperial/Wilmington space industry (it was estimated to have the 10th largest (5,200) and I-605/I-105 (3,880). employment concentration in the LA metropolitan area, The largest eastbound alightings are at Imperial/Wilmington with 54,000 jobs in 2004) in the corridor after the initial (5,270) and I-605/I-105 (4,110). post-Cold War collapse, and The largest westbound alightings are at Imperial/Wilmington High running speeds and a direct connection to the Blue (3,220) and Aviation (3,000). Line that facilitates train-to-train transfers for riders trav- eling to downtown Los Angeles.24 Some highlights of rider surveys are as follows: The Green Line, however, is important in several aspects A. Income less than $15,000 40% from a "New Paradigm" perspective. It is the only crosstown $15000$50,000 40% (circumferential) multimodal corridor in North America. Over $50,000 20% While it does not have any major land use anchor, it shows B. Car Availability 37% that high speeds and good connections to radial rapid transit C. A.M. Peak Hour: See Table D-1. lines can attract riders. Benefits Los Angeles Gold Line/I-210 Corridor The corridor scores high in providing a multimodal facility within a combined right-of-way, and it has substantially Limits reduced travel times by public transportation. From: Mission Station To: Chinatown Station Assessment The line has had little land use impact--even where it crosses Context and Project Development History the Blue Line. Access to stations is difficult. The line comes The 13.7-mile $740 million Gold Line was placed in ser- close to, but does not directly serve, the Los Angeles Inter- vice July, 2003. The 13-station line runs from Union Station 23Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Rid- 24Mieger, D., Chu, C., "The Los Angeles Metro Green Line: Why Are People Riding ing the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meet- the Line to Nowhere", Compendium of Technical Papers, 86th Annual Meeting, ing, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007. Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., January 2007.

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112 at the eastern edge of downtown Los Angeles to Sierra Madre under budget, at which time they transferred ownership Villa. and operational duties to LACMTA.25 Several extensions are in progress or are being planned: Design Features An Eastside extension connecting Union Station to Lit- The Gold Line mainly occupies the former BNSF right-of- tle Tokyo, Boyle Heights, and East Los Angeles is sched- way including a small portion of street running. Five miles uled to open by the end of 2009. There will be twin 1.7- with three stations--Lake, Allen, and Sierra Madre Villa-- mile tunnels with two underground stations on this are located in the median of the eight-lane Foothills Freeway extension. (I-10). The freeway and LRT line run in trench alignments A Foothills Freeway extension from the terminus on the through Pasadena. east side of Pasadena to the City of Azusa is in the final design stage (2008). Opening is reportedly scheduled Stations for 2010. A planned extension to Montclair is scheduled for 2010. Center-island stations are located in the freeway median. This segment would be entirely above ground with a small Each station is uniquely designed. For example, at the Lake portion in the median of I-210. Station, large scale black-and-white photo portraits of people are laminated within glass at the mezzanine level. At the Allen The initial concept for the Gold Line was to connect it via Station, paper cutouts and metal grillworks enhance the station subway to the Blue Line LRT, thereby providing several stops entry. At the Sierra Madre Villa Station, the line's current in downtown Los Angeles, and allowing through service northern terminus, large-scale photo portraits of porcelain enamel street panels are suspended above the stairway access between Pasadena and Long Beach. In contrast, the connection to platform areas. to East Los Angeles under construction will still require trans- About 5,000 parking spaces are provided along the Gold Line fers at Union Station to the Red Line subway. of which 3,000 are at Union Station. Along the I-210 multi- As part of an initiative in 1980 to pass a half-cent sales tax modal section, there are 950 spaces at the Sierra Madre Villa increase to fund county transportation projects (Proposi- Station and 100 at the Lake Station. Each of the three stations tion A), the Los Angeles County Transportation Commis- has connecting bus service. An intermodal transportation sion (LACTC) presented a plan to the voters for a regional hub at the Sierra Madre Station is connected to the parking network of rail transit lines, including a line from down- area and trains. town Los Angeles to Pasadena. In 1992, the LACTC (having merged with the Los Angeles Regional Transit District Operations to form the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transpor- tation Authority [LACMTA]), acquired a 38-mile-long The Gold Line uses about 25 articulated light-rail vehicles. BNSF right-of-way from Los Angeles to Claremont (pass- Each train car seats 76 passengers and has a rush-hour schedule ing through Pasadena). Construction of the line began in design capacity of 144 passengers, including standees. The line 1994 and was scheduled for completion by 2001, but the operates three-car trains. Service operates from about 4 A.M. project was halted in 1995 due to cost overruns, engineer- to 2 A.M. the next day. Trains run at 10-minute intervals during ing complications, and charges of favoritism in the award- rush hours, 12-minute intervals midday, and 15- to 20-minute ing of contracts by LACMTA. To reduce costs, a station intervals during evening hours. One-way running time for the (Avenue 51 at Highland Park) was eliminated and a stan- 13.7 mile trip is 36 minutes. Speeds average 23 miles per hour. dard design for all stations was implemented (with the ex- ception of a few designated "landmark" stations which were Patronage deemed tourist "gateways"). During this period, serious 21,500 average weekday boardings (estimated for study consideration was given to eliminating the Pasadena Blue corridor) on the Gold Line. Line (later to be renamed as the Gold Line) altogether. State Route 210: However, the cities of Pasadena, South Pasadena, and Los 186,000 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- Angeles campaigned to keep the project alive, and State ridor) on State Route 210. Senator Adam Schiff pushed through a bill that created the 241,800 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- Pasadena Blue Line Construction Authority (PBLA) in 1999 ridor) on State Route 210. that created a stand-alone construction agency charged with the completion of the project. The PBLA completed construction of the line to Pasadena in 2003, on time and 25 http://www.publicartinla.com/Metroart/GoldLine/history.pdf

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113 Benefits person carpools. The reduction was in effect from January 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. As a direct result, the number of The Gold Line provides convenient and reliable access to people moved on the busway dropped. Many carpoolers many destinations en route. To build the Gold Line and previously forced to triple up moved to two-person car- capitalize on the benefits it has brought, the Pasadena Con- pools. This increased traffic on the roadway and substan- struction Authority was created. The Authority hopes to tially increased congestion. As a result of the congestion, recoup roughly $30 million of the costs of building the line speeds on the busway dropped from 65 mph (105 km/h) by developing excess land acquired during construction.26 before the experiment to 20 mph (32 km/h) during the A number of TOD projects have been proposed or built since experiment, while speeds in the mixed-flow lanes did not this line's opening, including Avenue 57 and Del Mar, in change significantly paradoxically making the busway station areas within the City of Pasadena.27 slower than the regular lanes.29, 30 As a result of public out- rage, Assembly Bill 769 was passed in July 2000 that was an Los Angeles El Monte Busway/San Bernardino (I-10) emergency measure to terminate the experiment during Freeway Corridor peak hours. After June 30, 2001, carpools again required a minimum 3 occupants per vehicle. Limits From: El Monte Bus Terminal Design Features To: Union Station The busway, when built, was the most complete busway in the United States with on-line stations, park-and-ride Context and Project Development History facilities, and feeder bus lanes. It includes a 5-mile barrier- The I-10 (San Bernardino) Freeway corridor largely oc- separated segment and a 7-mile segment with a 10.5-foot-wide cupies former Pacific Electric Interurban rail right-of-way striped pavement buffer. between El Monte and downtown Los Angeles. The busway The 6.6-mile section between El Monte and the Long Beach has one-way bus lanes built in the median strip or alongside Freeway is located in the freeway median. A 20-foot railroad the freeway, which are separated from the general-purpose track and opening is maintained in the median and flanked traffic lanes by concrete barriers or a buffer lane with traffic by a median walk, a 17-foot busway, a 3-foot flexible post posts. Downtown distribution is provided via city streets-- every 50 feet, a 10-foot common shoulder, and then four Broadway inbound and the Spring Street contra-flow bus freeway lanes. lane outbound. A 3.8-mile section adjacent to the freeway between Mission The busway was jointly developed by the Southern Cali- Road and the Long Beach Freeway consists of a 54-foot two- fornia Rapid Transit District (SCRTD) (now the Los Ange- way busway with 12-foot lanes, an 8-foot right shoulder, and a les County MTA) and the California Department of Trans- 4-foot left shoulder in each direction separated by a barrier. portation in conjunction with the widening of the freeway. Contra-flow lanes exist west of the California State Univer- The 11-mile busway opened as a bus-only facility in 1972; sity, Los Angeles, to the Santa Ana/San Bernardino Freeway its development costs were $57 million. A one-mile, $18- interchange. The transposed operations facilitates access to million extension into downtown Los Angeles opened in and from the busway and allows common station platforms. 1989. The busway was originally intended for bus-only op- erations and operated as such from 1973 to 1974, but was Stations opened to vehicles with three or more occupants during the Three major on-line bus stations are located at El Monte, 68-day 1974 SCRTD strike. In 1976, the facility was opened the university, and a large hospital complex. Five park-and- to authorized carpools of three or more occupants from ride lots along the busway provide 2,425 spaces. The 2,100 610 A.M. and 37 P.M. After the strike ended, the use by space El Monte Station park-and-ride, the largest facility, carpools continued.28 is connected to the transitway by a bus-only ramp. A circular In 1999, the State Legislature revised the state's vehicle code island platform provides convenient transfer between express to provide for an 18-month experiment that allowed two- and local (feeder) bus lines. 26Cervero, R., S. Murphy, C. Ferrell, N. Goguts, and Y. Tsai. Transit Oriented De- velopment in America: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. Transit Cooper- 29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Monte_Busway ative Research Program, Report No. 102., p. 333. 30Turnbull, K. "Effects of Changing HOV Lane Occupancy Requirements: El 27Ibid, p. 413. Monte Busway Case Study," FHWA-OP-03-002, June 2002. http://www.itsdocs. 28http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Monte_Busway fhwa.dot.gov/JPODOCS/REPTS_TE/13692.html

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114 LACMTA and Foothills Transit buses operate on the flow freeway lanes during peak periods. A 12-mile peak-hour transitway. Seven express bus routes make 200 weekday trip required 48 minutes using mixed-flow lanes as compared trips along the 12-mile (19 km) transitway. One-way bus with 17 minutes by a three-person car pool or bus trip. running time is 17 minutes resulting in operating speeds of more than 40 miles per hour. Denver Region Patronage Denver is the major center of the Rocky Mountain area with an urbanized area population of more than two million. Its 7,000 average weekday boardings (estimated for study cor- central business district employment approximates 120,000, ridor) on the transitway. and CBD floor space approximates 24 million square feet. I-25, Interstate 10: the major North-South expressway, has a major spur, I-225 to 221,000 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study Aurora. corridor) on Interstate 10. Much commercial and residential development has located 287,300 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study along both these interstate routes in southeast and eastern corridor) on Interstate 10. Denver, including the Denver Tech Center with an employ- ment that exceeds 50,000. Their junction has been reported The San Bernardino (I-10) Freeway Transitway was initially as one of the busiest in the United States. restricted to buses only when it opened in 1973. The number of RTD light rail began revenue service on October 7, 1994. buses using the lanes and the ridership increased significantly RTD's first light rail line, the Central Corridor, runs from during the first few years of operation and then grew slowly. 30th Avenue and Downing through the Five Points Business Ridership increased from 1,000 to 14,500 passengers during the District and downtown Denver, by the Aurora campus, then initial bus-only operating period; between 50 and 70 percent along railroad right-of-way to I-25 and Broadway. There are of the riders during this period previously drove alone31. The three park-and-rides on the Central Corridor light rail line. average daily bus ridership was 18,000 in 1994 and 19,400 in The I-25 and Broadway Station Park-and-Ride provides 1996, despite the introduction of Metrolink Rail service into the 1,050 parking spaces. Alameda Station Park-and-Ride opened corridor. MTA reports daily boardings of 18,000 (as of 2001). in August 1996 and has 287 spaces. The adjacent Broadway/ The park-and-ride facility at the El Monte terminal was filled Marketplace provides 221 spaces. The 30th and Downing Sta- to capacity in the first few years, and the lack of parking space tion Park-and-Ride has 27 parking spaces.34 appears to have inhibited bus ridership growth. The number of peak-hour buses increased from 76 in 1998 to 84 in 200032; buses carried 2,750 passengers and 2,950 pas- Denver T-REX/I-25 Corridor sengers, respectively33. These numbers exceed the people carried Limits per general occupancy lane. As a result during the peak hour (as of 1998), buses accounted for 17 percent of the total person From: Lincoln Station movement, carpools 26 percent, and the remaining 57 percent To: I-25/Broadway Station were single-occupant cars in the four general purpose freeway lanes. This is contrasted with daily patronage estimates listed Context and Project Development History above that suggest a more modest 2 percent bus mode share The Southeast Transportation Expansion Project (T- of person-trips in this corridor. REX) line extends along the west side of reconstructed I-25 to Lincoln, with a short spur in the median of I-225 to Au- Benefits rora (see Figure D-2). LRT lines to Union Station and to Busway users (with 3 or more person carpools) experience 16th Street in the eastern part of the CBD link both trunk a significant speed advantage over travelers using the mixed- lines with the City Center. These are viewed as the Central Corridor. The multimodal segment of this corridor consists of roughly 17 miles of a 19-mile line completed in 2006 for a cost of 31Levinson H. S., Zimmerman S., et al, TCRP 90 Bus Rapid Transit, Vol. 1 Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit Appendix C (CD), Transportation Research Board, $1.67 billion. The project was delivered ahead of schedule and Washington, D.C. 2003. has had over a full year of operation. 32St. Jacques K., and Levinson H. S., TRCP Report 26 Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 1991. 33Turnbull K. F., Levinson H. S., Pratt R. H., TCRP 95 Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 2--HOV Facilities, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2006. 34 www.rtd-denver.com/Projects/Fact_Sheets/CCLRT_Facts.pdf

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115 times were closer to cars. Local buses were subject to the same congestion as cars and were further delayed by fre- quent passenger stops. The study also voiced the concerns of the corridor's employers who said that the inadequacy of effective and affordable transportation services there made it difficult to recruit and retain employees.35 This was in contrast to the projections of planners that 150,000 new jobs would be added in the downtown area and the huge Denver Tech Center over the next 20 years, further increasing the prospects for gridlock. The study recommended two capac- ity enhancements to accommodate this anticipated growth: the widening of the corridor's freeways and the develop- ment of a high-capacity transit line along the freeway's alignment.36 In April 1995, The Colorado Department of Transporta- tion, Denver's Regional Transit District, and DRCOG com- missioned the Southeast Corridor Major Investment Study (MIS), which sought the best solutions to the corridor's congestion problems.37 The study included partners with in- terests in the corridor, including Arapahoe and Douglas counties along with the cities of Denver, Aurora, and Green- wood Village. Perhaps due in part to this wide variety of in- terests involved in the study, the initial MIS was largely transit-oriented in its recommendations, which included Source: Colorado Department of Transportation, T-REX Fact Book. light rail, pedestrian/bicycle facility improvements, enhanced Figure D-2. The T-REX Corridor looking north toward Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures, the Tech Center and Downtown Denver. intelligent transportation system (ITS) measures, and rela- tively minor highway improvements such as acceleration and deceleration lanes and wider shoulders. Somewhat to The T-REX project includes park-and-ride facilities at all the disappointment of the Federal Highway Administration the stations and RTD operates feeder bus service throughout (FHWA) and CDOT, no highway-widening measures were the station areas as well. Six distinct light rail lines use portions recommended and the four lead agencies agreed that the of the segment; these provide limited service over some MIS placed too much emphasis on transit.38 According to portions. Cal Marsalla, RTD's director, "We looked at ways to break The Denver region had been considering fixed guideway down the highway vs. transit rivalry and started looking at transit since the 1970s. Prior to the development of light mobility," and, "Let's look at highway and transit as coordi- rail, Denver's downtown had declined over time and LRT nated pieces of a comprehensive strategy to maximize mo- could be seen as both an effort to reduce congestion and pro- bility in a project with limited available right of way. We set vide increased capacity to stimulate growth in the downtown. our sights on a project that was a win-win (proposition) for Anecdotal observations indicate that today, downtown both transit and highway. What emerged was the T-REX Denver has been revitalized and is flourishing, suggest- project."39 ing that the value of T-REX and its predecessor light rail projects should be evaluated not just in terms of how well 35Metro Denver/Colorado, T-REX Fact Book, http://www.metrodenver.org/ they have competed with nearby freeways and mitigated files/documents/transportation-infrastructure/highways/Trans_HWY_T-REX congestion, but also as a tool for encouraging the growth of FactBook.pdf 36Accessed 8/27/09, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorado_T-REX_Project_%28 downtown. TRansportation_EXpansion%29 The beginnings of the T-REX project can be traced to a 37Civil Engineering News- Spotlight on Building The Future-T-REX project, 1992 study by the Denver Regional Council of Governments http://www.cenews.com/article.asp?id=1314 (DRCOG) that found that congestion levels on the freeway 38Civil Engineering News- Spotlight on Building The Future-T-REX project, http://www.cenews.com/article.asp?id=1314 would soon bring gridlock most of the day. Specifically, the 39US Department of Transportation, Environmental Review Toolkit, `Trans- study found that local bus service travel times were about portation Expansion (T-REX) Multi-Modal Transportation Project' http:// twice that of cars in the corridor, while express bus travel www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/strmlng/casestudies/co.asp

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116 The persistence of this partnership team paid off many times Meet or beat the total program budget of $1.67 billion. throughout the history of this project. In 1997, a small sales Provide a quality project. tax increase put on the ballot by RTD to finance construction Meet or beat the project's operational deadline of June 30, of six new rail lines failed, despite the passage of a similar 2008. measure the year before. Lauren Martens, an environmental organizer who helped lead a successful 2004 ballot initiative, Collaboration among the partners was further institution- suggested two reasons why the 1997 transit plan and its alized by the formation of a Policy committee and a Technical associated sales tax measure failed to pass. First, she said the committee, staffed by citizens from the jurisdictions within 1997 transit plan was not clear about the proposed projects' the project corridor with appropriate policy and technical back- costs and planned routes. Second, a politically prominent, grounds. The Policy Committee monitored project progress libertarian, free-market RTD board member opposed the 1997 relative to the overall public agency decision-making processes. proposal, which Mr. Martens said confused voters. The project The Technical Committee monitored the project's planning, partners learned from this setback and concluded that future engineering, and environmental issues and helped develop efforts needed to be based on a detailed set of project plans the project alternatives.42 with costs and line routes clearly stated in combination with a vigorous public outreach campaign. Transit advocates also Design Features worked to elect RTD board members who would support light Stations are uniquely designed; their canopies are simple, rail and other mass transit improvements, and the following functional, and attractive. Covered pedestrian bridges connect year (1998), they were successful in electing a transit-friendly stations with parking facilities and adjacent developments. board. The business community was also an active project The most unique design feature is the integration of an LRT partner. In 1999, the Denver Chamber of Commerce led the flying junction with the SR4 freeway interchanges between I- effort to form a grassroots coalition of civic groups and elected 25 and I-225. leaders known as the Transit Alliance--an organization that would play a critical role in building the political support for Stations future transit funding initiatives. It did this by recruiting There are eleven center island stations along I-25 and local elected leaders from more than 30 communities to two along I-225. The stations will eventually accommodate endorse the plan, recruiting thousands of volunteers, convening four-car trains. Parking facilities are provided at all stations. hundreds of public meetings, and distributing informational The largest parking structure at the Lincoln (terminal) station materials to metro Denver residents.40 contains 1,734 spaces. The RTD also operates feeder bus These efforts to bridge the gap between highway and tran- service to most stations. sit interests also yielded a revised Major Investment Study that combined highway widening (with up to seven lanes Operations in each direction) with fixed rail transit improvements--a mix that all the project partners could support. This cross- In the service plan for Denver's six initial lines, Routes C agency collaborative structure and the multimodal, widely and D link Union Station and 16th Street in downtown supported plans that it produced would yield additional Denver with Littleton. T-REX Lines E and F connect the city benefits in June 1999 when the state's voters passed Refer- center with Lincoln. Line H connects downtown Denver with endum A, allowing CDOT to borrow money based on fed- Nine-Mile Road. Line G connects Lincoln with Nine-Mile eral funds for the T-REX project that the state had not yet Road. Eighty-foot articulated LRT cars--at a cost of $2.4 mil- approved.41 These partnering efforts only intensified as time lion per car, which can hold 120 people each--run in one to went on. CDOT, RTD, FHWA and the Federal Transit Admin- three car trains. istration (FTA) signed a "Partnering Agreement" to work on North of the flying junction there are 10 trains and 28 cars the project. The agreement established four primary goals: per hour. On I-25 south of this junction there are 6 trains and 17 cars. Speeds average up to 30 mph between 16th Street in Minimize inconvenience to the community, motorists, and downtown Denver and the outer terminals. Since this involves public. several miles of street running, the actual speeds along I-25 and I-225 are considerably higher. 40Denver University Colorado Economic Futures Panel `Paying for Transporta- tion', http://www.du.edu/economicpanel/article/five_033005.html 42US Department of Transportation, Environmental Review Toolkit, `Trans- 41Denver University Colorado Economic Futures Panel `Paying for Transporta- portation Expansion (T-REX) Multi-Modal Transportation Project' http://www. tion', http://www.du.edu/economicpanel/article/five_033005.html environment.fhwa.dot.gov/strmlng/casestudies/co.asp

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117 Patronage station areas in the T-REX corridor have also benefited from TOD development, including Dry Creek Station, where Light Rail Line: a pedestrian bridge east of the station is encouraging the 22,500 average weekday boardings (estimated for study development of new high-density residential developments, corridor) on the light rail line and the Arapahoe Station Office Project, which was completed 2,602 riders peak-hour direction. in 2008.48 Interstate 25: The simultaneous construction of the roadway and LRT 208,000 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- facilities reportedly saved $300 to $500 million in construction ridor) on Interstate 25 costs.49 270,400 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study corridor) on Interstate 25 Denver Central/I-25 Corridor Trains carry about 18 percent of the 12,427 peak-hour pas- Limits sengers in this corridor. However, on a per-lane basis, the trains actually carry more people. From: I-25/Broadway Station To: Union Station Benefits The multimodal corridor has dramatically reduced con- Context and Project Development History gestion and improved mobility in Southeast Denver. It has The Central Corridor line runs parallel to I-25 from its also given travelers a viable choice of mode. While the freeway junction with I-225, south of downtown Denver. The line lanes are operating at about 75 percent of capacity during runs along a pre-existing freight rail line, and there are peak hours, there is a much greater capacity reserve on the LRT generally very few direct street connections to the freeway's lines. The project has dramatically shortened travel times over interchanges. The stations will eventually accommodate the whole length of the corridor. While traffic was stop-and-go four-car trains. Parking facilities are provided at all stations. all day before the project, the corridor has not reverted to a The largest parking structure at the Lincoln (terminal) station more typical A.M. and P.M. peaking pattern. The harsh winter contains 1,734 spaces. The RTD also operates feeder bus weather Denver experiences has turned out to work to the service to most stations. advantage of the light rail line in this corridor, since the train offers better travel time reliability than the highway.43 Cost "What we've built so far already has influenced where businesses locate, where housing is built, where people decide $116.5 million50 to live and how they get to work," said Joe Blake, the president of the Metro Denver Chamber of Commerce.44 The City of Design Features Denver has taken bold steps to encourage transit-oriented Stations are uniquely designed; their canopies are simple, development around its rail stations. Blueprint Denver pro- functional, and attractive. Covered pedestrian bridges connect vides a new transit mixed use (TMU-30) zoning designation stations with parking facilities and adjacent developments. that allows FARs of up to 5-to-1, and parking requirements for areas close to light-rail stations are slashed 25 percent.45 Stations TOD zoning policies such as these were first adopted by the City of Denver along the northern part of the T-REX corridor, There are three park-and-ride lots on the Central Corridor but now have been adopted by cities up and down the line.46 light rail line. The I-25 & Broadway Station park-and-ride The expansion of Denver's light rail system has brought provides 1,050 parking spaces and serves as a major intermodal substantial benefits to downtown Denver, with office rents transfer station. Alameda Station's park-and-ride lot opened along the transit mall leasing at a premium of 8 to 16 percent in August 1996 and has 287 spaces. The adjacent Broadway/ higher than those off the mall during the early 2000s.47 Several Marketplace provides 221 spaces. The 30th and Downing Station park-and-ride has 27 parking spaces.51 43Interview with Larry Warner, CDOT, December 15, 2008. 44Denver University Colorado Economic Futures Panel `Paying for Transporta- tion', http://www.du.edu/economicpanel/article/five_033005.html 48Interview with Larry Warner, CDOT, December 15, 2008. 45Ibid Cervero et al., p. 69. 49Public Roads, September, October, 2007. 46Interview with Larry Warner, CDOT, December 15, 2008. 50http://www.rtd-denver.com/Projects/Fact_Sheets/CCLRT_Facts.pdf 47Ibid, p. 163. 51http://www.rtd-denver.com/Projects/Fact_Sheets/CCLRT_Facts.pdf

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135 was completed and opened in June, 1986. It runs along the metro planning to a locally run agency--the Washington median of I-66 for the portion serving Fairfax county and Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which would half of its stretch through Arlington County. In Arlington, develop plans for a 98-mile regional system, estimated to cost I-66 carries commuter traffic and also provides the connection $1.828 billion. When adjusted for inflation, the system would to Virginia 267, the Dulles Airport Access Road. eventually cost $3.8 billion, drawing recent criticisms as an ex- Along the line, Vienna/Fairfax-GMU serves as the access ample of a "mega-project" that subjected tax-payers to cost- point for 9,900 morning entries while Foggy Bottom has overruns and underperformance. Counter-arguments point 10,000 A.M. exits. Rosslyn station immediately west of the out that WMATA's metro system is incredibly successful at at- Potomac has balanced A.M. entries and exits with 4,800 enter- tracting ridership and has been effective as a replacement to the ing and 6,800 exiting in the morning. freeway "mega-project" originally planned by Congress.94 The rapid post-war suburbanization of metropolitan The I-66/Orange Line corridor provides a microcosm of the Washington D.C. created a host of interstate transit service larger highway versus transit debate in the Washington D.C. challenges. Like many regions, its automobile-dependent region and the rest of the country during the 1950s, 60s, and suburbs were increasingly hard to serve with transit. However, 70s. Prior to World War II, Arlington County, through which in and around DC, the difficulties of regional transit service the corridor runs just west of the District, served primarily as were compounded by the many private transit companies serv- a bedroom community. But the National Capital Planning ing DC, Virginia, and Maryland that were regulated by separate Commission (NCPC) published a plan that set the stage for a public utilities commissions while inter-jurisdictional trips comprehensive transformation of the corridor in 1961--a were regulated by the federal Interstate Commerce Commis- plan that called for dense developments along major trans- sion. This patchwork of regulatory control meant that sub- portation corridors, reserving wedges between those corri- urban commuters often faced an uncoordinated set of sched- dors for less dense development. The Orange Line Corridor ules, fares, and routes.93 So while other regions considering was one such area designated for dense employment and resi- regional rapid rail systems--San Francisco and Atlanta--faced dential growth.95 A 1962 NCTA report provided the vision similar problems of serving dispersed suburbs and uncoordi- for these changes where rapid rail in the corridor would be the transportation glue that would bind the corridor together nated transit service providers, the DC region developed an and attract NCPC's planned growth. ambitious plan to create a unified transit agency that would NCTA's report also set the design specifics for the rapid cross state lines. rail system as a whole that would eventually come to During the 1950s, when Eisenhower's Federal-Aid Highway fruition in this and several other of the region's corridors-- Act (1956) set the stage for the automobile to play the leading minimizing costs by routing suburban extensions as surface role in shaping urban form across the nation, these policies lines along freeway rights-of-way.96 And it appears that if the were echoed by Congress's National Planning Commission's plan was carried out to the letter, then the Orange Line would Mass Transportation Plan for DC, calling for a network of have been routed along I-66 in its entirety, but the govern- 329 miles of highways to carry the bulk of the region's traffic. ment of Arlington County had plans for dense residential and And while this network included a rapid rail network as well, commercial development roughly a mile to the south of I-66. the 33-miles planned for this system was small in comparison By 1966, the County and NCTA had agreed to route the first to the emphasis placed on highways--priorities that encour- few miles of the Orange line along Wilson Boulevard (where aged DC's own freeway revolt. John F. Kennedy's election in the high-density commercial and apartment developments 1960 gave further impetus to the pro-transit supporters, were planned) instead of the low-density residential areas when he replaced the national experts who had been in charge along I-66. Once the line was west of this planned high-density of planning DC's freeway expansions with local transit advo- area, the Orange Line would rejoin I-66 to reduce costs of align- cates who had opposed the highway-oriented plan. When he ment as it ran into Fairfax County.97 However, in the District, assumed office, Kennedy established a new planning agency-- stakeholders were often split in terms of geography, with sub- the National Capital Transportation Agency (NCTA)--for the urban Virginia and Maryland residents favoring the freeway- region. The NCTA worked through much of the 1960s to expand the size and role of the planned rapid rail system in regional transporation. In 1967, partially as a result of Presi- 94Schrag, Z. M. "Thinking Big: Lessons from the Washington Metro," Trans- dent Lyndon B. Johnson's emphasis on locally driven plan- portation Research News, March-April 2007, National Academies, pp. 1820. ning, local officials convinced Congress to turn over DC 95Schrag, Z. M. "The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro," Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, p. 222. 96Schrag, Z. M. "The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro," Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, p. 223. 93 Schrag, Z. M. "The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington 97Schrag, Z. M. "The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro," Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, p. 96. Metro," Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006, p. 224.

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136 heavy plan, and District residents favoring the plan for rapid rail alighting. The 9,600 parking spaces located at stations in the that would replace many of the freeway system's links. multimodal corridor account for an average of 4.5 passenger As the 1960s progressed, it became clear that a compromise boardings per space. was needed since the District was not going to allow freeways within its borders and the suburban freeways would be cut off Operations from the region's core employment center. In 1968, WMATA Orange Line trains run at frequent intervals from early publicly stated that the philosophy that transit could sub- stitute for highways was unworkable. The agency's general morning to late evening. There is no overnight service. The manager stated for the record that WMATA, "has consistently trains join the Blue Line between the Rosslyn and Stadium- maintained that rapid rail transit is a supplement to and not Armory stations and then proceed to New Carrollton. About a substitute for alternative modes of transportation," promising 300 cars operate across the Potomac River from Virginia dur- that the vast majority of the system's passengers would access its ing the 6:309:30 morning peak period. Occupancy averages stations via bus or car.98 This appears to have helped to circum- 90 percent. Travel times from Vienna to Ballston (the sta- vent the suburban/urban political impasse. In 1968, WMATA tion East of East Falls Church) are 15 minutes. The average put forth a bond initiative on the ballot to fund the construc- speed is 36 mph. tion of the rail system. Voters in both states approved the funding by a 72 percent landslide. Federal funding for Patronage WMATA's construction was secured in 1969 from Congress. 139,400 average weekday boardings (estimated for study The corridor would be developed as a multimodal facility, corridor) on the Orange Line. with Metrorail running in the median of a reduced, four-lane Interstate 66: I-66 freeway.99 98,000 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study corri- Service on the Orange Line began on November 20, 1978 dor) on Interstate 66. (temporarily), between National Airport and New Carrollton. 127,400 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study When the line from Rosslyn to BallstonMU was completed a year later, trains began following its current route rather than corridor) on Interstate 66. going south to National Airport. The line was completed on The Vienna/Fairfax terminal station serves as the access point June 7, 1986, when it was extended by four stations to Vienna/ for 9,900 morning entries. Rosslyn Station on the combined Fairfax-GMU.100 Orange and Blue Lines, immediately west of the Potomac River has balanced entries and exits; 4,800 enter, and 6,800 exit in the Design Features morning. Foggy Bottom has 10,000 A.M. exits. The Orange Line is designed for 70 mph top speeds. With an average spacing of 3 miles between stations, trains speeds Benefits are high. The space occupied by the tracks, stations, and The multimodal corridor carries roughly 8,800 people buffers is about 65-feet wide. in the AM and PM peak hour directions across the Capi- Interstate 66 is designated as an HOV-2-only facility between tal Beltway. Metro Rail carries slightly more people than the Washington, DC, Beltway and the Theodore Roosevelt the freeway lanes. The use of the rail line is more than three Bridge during peak periods. The entire eastbound (inbound) times as productive as the freeway on a per lane basis. The roadway is HOV-2 during the AM peak period, and the entire Arlington County zoning ordinance encourages commer- westbound (outbound) roadway is reserved for HOV-2 during cial and high-density residential development around sta- the PM peak. tions between Rosslyn and Ballston. In recent years, develop- ment has begun to occur around stations in the multimodal Stations corridor. Center island stations are located within a right-of-way of about 65 feet. The stations can accommodate eight-car 75-foot trains. Metro Bus and Fairfax County buses serve the stations, Chicago Region and special areas are provided for passenger boarding and The Chicago Urbanized Area--one of the nation's largest-- has more than 8.5 million residents. The City's central busi- ness district (the Loop) has over 120 million square feet of 98Schrag, Z. M. "The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington commercial floor space, and its employment exceeds 350,000. Metro," Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. 99http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_66 It is served by an extensive commuter rail system, and a 90-mile 100http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_Line_%28Washington_Metro%29 138-station rail rapid transit (heavy rail) system (Figure D-10).

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137 Source: Courtesy Chicago Transit Authority Figure D-10. Chicago's rail transit system map. The City of Chicago and the Chicago Transit Authority Park. The Blue Line opened on June 22, 1958, replacing the pioneered the development of multimodal freeway-rapid former Garfield Park elevated that had operated since 1905. transit corridors. There are rail lines in the Eisenhower, Ryan, The rapid transit line connects with the Congress-Dearborn- and Kennedy Expressways. Milwaukee subway through the Loop, and with the rapid transit line to Logan Square, Jefferson Park, and O'Hare In- Chicago Blue Line/Eisenhower Expressway Corridor ternational Airport. The first 6 miles are located in the me- dian of the eight-lane freeway, and the next 3 miles are lo- Limits cated along the south side of the (6-lane) freeway. There are From: Forest Park Station 11 stations in this multimodal corridor. To: LaSalle Station Construction of the Blue (Congress) route and its connec- tion to the subway was financed by the City of Chicago. About Context and Project Development History $2 million was derived from the sale of revenue bonds being The I-290 Eisenhower Expressway multimodal corridor serviced by subway rental paid by the Chicago Transit Author- extends from the Chicago Center business district to Forest ity. An additional $25 million came from a general obligation

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138 by intersecting CTA and suburban bus routes. There are more than 1,000 parking spaces at the Forest Park terminal. Operations The initial operating plan had alternate trains serving the Douglas (Pink) and Congress (Blue) branches. As ridership patterns changed, the Pink Line trains were rerouted to the nearby Lake Street elevated structure, and a single Blue Line service runs to the Forest Park Terminal. Because the O'Hare Line has heavy ridership, alternate trains are terminated in the CBD during rush hours. Trains run in the subway in the central area and continue to O'Hare International Airport. The CTA provides 24-hour service. Trains run every 7 to 8 minutes from about 6 A.M. to midnight, with longer head- ways during overnight hours. Trains have eight cars between Source: Courtesy of Jeremiah Cox/SubwayNut.com 6 A.M. and 6 P.M. and four cars at other times. Cars are 48 feet Figure D-11. Chicago's Eisenhower Expressway and long; they are 8 feet and 9 inches wide at platform level, and the Blue Line at Racine Station. 9 feet and 4 inches wide at waist level. issue101. The city made $12 million available for equipment, Patronage to be repaid by the CTA. The city's opening brochure indi- cates that "the use of the median strip has made possible A 1960 study of the passenger use of the Blue Line showed construction cost distribution of one-fifth for the transit to that trains accounted for 28 percent of the peak-hour peak- four-fifths for expressway facilities."102 direction passenger flow west of the Douglas junction and 57 percent east of the junction. Corresponding figures were Design Features 18 and 36 percent for a 24-hour period103. The expressway and transit line are located below grade for 20,000 average weekday boardings (estimated for study about the first 6 miles. They are flanked by continuous corridor) on the Blue Line. frontage roads that provide local access. North-south streets Interstate 290: cross over the freeway at about quarter-mile intervals (see 196,100 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- Figure D-11). ridor) on Interstate 290. The median is wide enough to allow future expansion to 254,900 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study four tracks for the first 4.5 miles, and to three tracks for the corridor) on Interstate 290. rest of the route. The initial design provided a ramp from the median to connect with the Douglas Park (now Pink) line Weekday station boardings in 2008 for the Blue Line are that was used for many years. There is also a third track for shown in Table D-4 switching trains in the eastern section of the rail line. Benefits Stations While it is difficult to identify a direct causal relationship Center Island station platforms are 600 feet long and between the transit line's presence and land development ac- canopied. Access to each station is from the middle of cross- tivities in the corridor, several notable trip attractors have street bridges by a gently sloping ramp. The major stations are continued to expand during the period of this line's opera- located between two cross street bridges one quarter mile apart, tion. The Chicago Circle Campus of the University of Illinois with an access ramp from each street bridge. An entrance is located along the Blue Line, a short distance to the east of building (about 42 by 21 feet) at each cross-street bridge con- the multimodal corridor. The Cook County Medical Center, tains fare collection equipment. Access to stations is provided located near the line, continues to expand. 101Chicago Transit--History and Progress, Chicago Transit Authority, Public In- formation Department, Chicago, Illinois, Undated. 103 Source: Chicago Transit Authority, also Gunlock, V. E.; Chicago's Rail Rapid 102Krambles, G. and Peterson, A., CTA at 45, George Krambles Scholarship Fund, Transit Line in the Congress Expressway. Presented at the annual convention of Chicago, Illinois 1993. the American Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts, November 1960.

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139 Table D-4. Average station home of the Chicago White Sox, is located at the 35th Street/ boardings Eisenhower Sox station. (Congress) Blue Line average--January Design Features September 2008. The Dan Ryan Expressway and rapid transit lines are below Station Passengers street grade. The rail line connects with both the South Side Forest Park 4,535 Oak Park 1,807 Elevated and the State Street subway. A storage yard is located Austin 2,026 south of 95th Street within the interchange area between I-94 Cicero 1,241 and I-57 to the south of 95th Street. Trains run on continu- Pulaski 1,527 Kedzie-Homan 1,908 ously welded rails supported by reinforced concrete ties, with Western 1,430 the rails cushioned by stone ballast. Medical Center 2,761 Racine 1,656 Total along Expressway 19,952 Stations U.I.C. Halsted 3,674 Clinton 2,926 Wide visibility and a high level of illumination character- Blue Line Total 26,552 ize station areas. Fare collection equipment and turnstiles are Source: Chicago Transit Authority. of stainless steel. Escalators supplement stairs. Use of steel and glass affords maximum visibility from adjacent streets and highways. Self-service infrared radiant heaters are located Chicago Red Line/Dan Ryan Expressway Corridor at windbreaks on the platforms. Patron conveniences include Limits high illumination lighting and a translucent canopy. Board- ing platforms accommodate eight-car trains. From: 95th Street Station Off-street bus transfer facilities are provided at the 95th To: Cermak/Chinatown Station Street terminal and at the 69th Street station; there are bus bridges at each station over the expressway traffic lanes. Both Context and Project Development History are heavily used stations. An off-street bus loop is also pro- Figure D-10 shows the relationship of this multimodal cor- vided at the Cermak Road station. ridor to the rest of Chicago's rapid transit system. The Dan Ryan Expressway opened in 1962. The rail line opened in the Operations median in 1969. Dan Ryan trains operated between 95th Street and the The expressway (I-90/I-94) has 14 express lanes along with Harlem-Lake Station from 1969 through 1993. Trains ran on continuous frontage roads between 27th and 65th streets. It the east (Wabash) and north (Lake Street) sides of the down- provides eight lanes south of 67th Street. town Loop. However, the ridership imbalance between the The total cost of the expressway has been cited as $300 mil- heavy (Ryan) and light (Lake) lines, and between the heavy lion. Total cost of the rapid transit line was reported to be (Howard) and light (Englewood-Jackson) lines became in- about $38 million plus another $19.5 million for new cars. creasingly pronounced. Therefore, since February, 1993, the The rapid transit line opened September 1969. Two-thirds of Dan Ryan trains have been through routed via the State Street the construction costs were covered by a federal grant. The subway to Howard Street on the city's north side. line was built to relieve the then-overlooked Jackson Park and Trains run 24 hours daily and consists of eight cars from Englewood lines and to extend 4 miles further south. There about 5 AM to 11 PM and four cars at other times. Trains run are nine stations along the 10.5-mile-long line. every 4 to 5 minutes during rush periods and every 7 to 8 min- The Chicago Transit Authority Red Line is located in the me- utes during midday and early evening. Service is at 15-minute dian of I-90, the Dan Ryan Expressway from south of Cermack/ intervals overnight. Running times were initially cited as Chinatown Station to its terminus at 95th Street station. The 26 minutes between 95th Street and downtown Chicago. Cur- Dan Ryan Expressway was completed to 95th Street in 1962. rent schedules show running times of about 25 minutes for the The section of the Red Line to 95th street opened in 1969. 10.5-mile distance. A plurality of station entries (13,449) takes place at the end point of the line at 95th Street. The median number of entries Patronage is 3,722. This indicates the line has a strong role in serving park-and-ride traffic and a strong automobile orientation 42,500 average weekday boardings (estimated for study overall. The land use along the line is varied, with several sta- corridor) on the Red Line. tions surrounded by transitional uses. Comiskey Park, the Dan Ryan Expressway:

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140 239,100 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- strip that cuts across the predominantly residential grid of ridor) on the Dan Ryan Expressway. Northwest Chicago. 311,700 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study corridor) on the Dan Ryan Expressway. Design Features The southern parts of the rapid transit line and freeway are Benefits on an elevated embankment. The section west of I-94 is below The Ryan Line has dramatically reduced travel times. A re- grade. There is a short tunnel into the O'Hare International built Comiskey Park, the home of the Chicago White Sox, is Airport. The two-track line has a third track in the median to located at the 35th Street Sox Station. The Dan Ryan Red Line the west of the initial terminus at Jefferson Park. This track was has carried as many as 16,000 people through the maximum used for storage of up to 108 cars, plus a two-track inspection load point in a single hour on a single track. In 1987, almost facility when the line was extended to O'Hare, a 12-car Rose- 11,000 people per hour were carried. 2008 figures suggest mont inspection stop and 260-car capacity yard were fitted into 7,300. These numbers vastly exceed the number of people previously unused segments between expressway ramps. carried per general-purpose travel lane. Stations Chicago Blue Line/Kennedy Expressway Center island stations are located about 1 mile apart on the (I-90) Corridor initial section. Stations on the extension to O'Hare are spaced Limits about 2 miles apart; these stations have stairways, elevators, and escalators and comply with ADA standards. Bus routes From: O'Hare Station were revised to connect with the stations. At the Jefferson To: Grand-Blue Station Park station, there is an off-street bus terminal. A pedestrian way connects this terminal with the rapid Context and Project Development History transit station and the adjacent METRA commuter rail sta- The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Expressway, opened in 1962, tion. Off-street parking facilities are provided at three outly- connects downtown Chicago with the Illinois Toll Road on ing stations. There are about 800 spaces at the Rosemont sta- the northwest side of the urban area. The southern section, tion, 1,636 at the Cumberland station, and 50 at the Harlem which carries both I-90 and I-94, was located along Metro's station. Daytime rates range from $2.00 to $3.00. northwest rail line to minimize community impacts. It has four travel lanes each way, plus two reversible lanes within the Operations median area. The western (I-90) section has three lanes in Blue Line trains operate between O'Hare and downtown each direction; a short spur (I-190) connects with O'Hare In- Chicago 24 hours a day. They are through-routed with the ternational Airport. Eisenhower service. During rush periods, alternate trains The long-established Milwaukee Avenue elevated and sub- terminate in downtown. Trains are eight cars long from about way line on Chicago's northwest side was initially extended 5:00 A.M. to 7:00 P.M., and four cars long at other times. They from its Logan Square terminal to Jefferson Park. The 5-mile run every 3 to 5 minutes during the rush hours, and 7 to extension, which includes a short subway and operates in the 8 minutes at other times. Overnight service is less frequent. center of the expressway, opened in 1970. It cost about $50 The major portion of the new line is designed for speeds of million (excluding the costs for 150 new cars). The rapid 70 miles per hour. The actual maximum operating speed is transit line was subsequently extended to River Road Febru- 58 miles per hour. The running time between O'Hare and ary 1983; a three-track terminal at O'Hare International air- the Loop is 44 to 48 minutes. port opened in September 1984. The median operation in- cludes about 11 miles of route with eight stations. Patronage The Kennedy Corridor runs along a historical rail right- of-way along I-90 to the northwest of Chicago. This corri- 74,358 average weekday boardings (estimated for study dor provides the most direct link between O'Hare Interna- corridor) on the Blue Line. tional Airport and downtown Chicago. The corridor is Kennedy Expressway: co-aligned with the METRA Northwest Union Pacific sub- 292,000 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- urban rail line that runs adjacent to the Freeway. The por- ridor) on the Kennedy Expressway. tion of the Blue Line, which is offset from I-90, runs along 379,600 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study North Milwaukee Avenue, a commercial and mixed-use corridor) on the Kennedy Expressway.

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141 The maximum load point on the Blue Line (September Stations 2008) approximated 12,000 people per hour in the busiest di- There are 30 stations along the New Haven main line. Most rection. It is estimated that the maximum load point (one- stations have side platforms that serve the outer two tracks. way) in the multimodal section is 4,000 people per hour. The Stamford, New Haven, and New York City's Grand Cen- tral and Harlem stations have multiple platforms. Overhead Benefits or below-track pedestrian connections are provided. Major The Blue Line operating in the median dramatically re- stations have bus access. More than 20,000 off-street parking duced transit travel times to O'Hare International Airport. spaces are provided at or near stations. The 45-minute time to the Loop during rush hours is compet- itive with driving. It also provides convenient travel for airport Operations workers. The line to O'Hare was CTA's first extension into rel- Metro North trains on the New Haven Line operate on a atively undeveloped land in more than half a century. It has "zone express" basis during peak hours. Three tracks are often resulted in commercial development at the Cumberland and provided in the heavy direction of travel. During off-peak Rosemont stations. hours, local trains between Stamford and New York City alter- nate with New Haven to New York trains that run express be- New Haven Line/I-95 Corridor tween Stamford and New York City, each on an hourly basis. Each weekday, 115 westbound trains enter Grand Central Ter- Limits minal, and 60 westbound trains enter Stamford. During the From: New Haven Station 8 A.M. to 9 A.M. rush hour, 21 westbound trains enter Grand To: New Rochelle Station Central and about 11 enter Stamford. Faster trains average 40 to 45 mph. Frequently they pass motorists on I-95 in the heavy Context and Project Development History direction of travel during rush hours. The I-95 New Haven Corridor consists of Interstate 95 Patronage and the Metro North Railroad New Haven Line and runs 86,500 average weekday boardings (estimated for study along roughly 60 miles of a historical rail right-of-way that corridor) on the New Haven Line. has extended from New York City to Boston for more than Interstate 95: 150 years. (Passenger service along portions of this line is also 152,100 vehicles per weekday (estimated for study cor- provided by the Shoreline East Line and Amtrak, but the ser- ridor) on Interstate 95. vice characteristics of those operations are not included here.) 197,700 person-trips per weekday (estimated for study Although running on a legacy right-of-way, the Metro corridor) on Interstate 95. North Railroad (which includes the New Haven line) is at its peak in terms of service, providing a record 80 million Benefits trips in 2007. The combined rail and road access in this multimodal cor- The I-95 New Haven Corridor is a regional system, as ridor have contributed to increased office development in there are distinct business districts in New Haven, Bridge- Stamford, Greenwich, and several other towns. Stamford has port, and Stamford in addition to New York City. Bridge- emerged as the major office center of Connecticut. port station includes access to the ferry terminal serving Long Island. Multimodal Corridors Outside Design Features the United States The New Haven Line generally has four tracks between Auckland (New Zealand) Northern New Haven and Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Busway/Northern Motorway (SH 1) Corridor It is fully grade-separated from all crossroads and streets. The Limits railroad is electrified by 11,000-volt alternating current be- tween New Haven, Connecticut, and Pelham, New York, and From: Akoranga Station by 650-volt direct current between Pelham and Grand Cen- To: Albany Station Park-and-Ride tral Terminal. Most service is provided by multiple-unit Context and Project Development History trains. Amtrak leaves the New Haven Line at New Rochelle and reaches Pennsylvania Station, New York City, via the Hell Auckland's 6.8-mile five-station Northern Busway system Gate Bridge. links the North Shore with the center of Auckland (Fig-

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142 Source: Courtesy New Zealand Transport Agency Figure D-12. Auckland, New Zealand's Northern Busway map. ure D-12). The busway, opened in February 2008, is a coop- $290 to 294 million--NZ $210 million for the busway con- erative venture of the Auckland Regional Transit Authority struction and NZ $84 million for stations. and the North Shore and Auckland City Council. It is the Design Features first step of a planned improved bus transit system that links the urban population of 368,000 with the City Center. The The two-lane busway runs roughly 4 miles along the east 1.67 square mile central business district has 65,000 jobs and, side of the Northern Motorway. Bus-only lanes connect the 10,000 residents; there are 73,000 entrants during the A.M. busway to the Harbour Bridge (see Figure D-13). The new Es- peak hours. The cost of the busway has been estimated at NZ monde Interchange facilitates the transition from the busway

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143 Source: Courtesy Scoop.co.nz and Transit New Zealand. Source: Courtesy The Energy Foundation. Figure D-13. Auckland, New Zealand's Northern Figure D-14. Beijing's Southern Axis BRT. Busway parallels the Northern Motorway (SH 1). Context and Project Development History to bus lanes. The busway is designed for possible future con- Beijing, China's capital, has a population of about 14 mil- version to light rail transit. lion. The urban area and its surroundings are served by a grow- ing number of rail transit and BRT lines. As Beijing continues Stations to expand at a rapid pace, residents are increasingly settling in the suburbs, leaving their city-center neighborhoods and their Four of the five stations are located along the busway. The walkable, bikeable commutes behind as well. While most of busway system includes elevators, electronic signs, audio as- Beijing's transportation improvement investments have been sistance posts, and 24-hour video monitoring. Many park- focused on expanding roads and parking lots for cars, most of and-ride spaces are provided at the Albany and Constellation the people remain dependent on public transportation. BRT is stations. seen as a cost-effective solution to these challenges. Operations Design Features Initially, there will be a bus at a station about every 3 minutes. Beijing's 10-mile, 17-station BRT line in the center of the Southern Axis Freeway opened in 2006 (Figure D-14). It links Patronage eight residential areas with a total population of 200,000 and The busway is forecast to carry 250 buses an hour and take four commercial areas in the city's southern districts. an estimated 2,400 cars off the road during peak periods. The 59-foot-long buses are equipped with an electronic stop announcement system and air conditioning, which most Benefits regular city buses do not have. The buses' low entry step al- lows access for wheelchairs, a feature that Beijing only re- It is anticipated that the busway will reduce peak-hour cently began incorporating into city transport. travel times from about 1 hour to 30 minutes. Stations Stations are located in the median of the road where the bus- Beijing (China) Southern Axis way runs. Stations are connected to the sidewalks at the road's Busway Corridor outer edges via overpasses and cross-street intersections.104 Limits 104 Matsumoto, N. "Analysis of policy processes to introduce Bus Rapid Transit systems in Asian cities from the perspective of lesson-drawing: cases of Jakarta, From: Demaozhuang Station Seoul, and Beijing", http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2370895/Analysis-of-policy- To: Qianmen Station processes-to-introduce-Bus-Rapid-Transit.

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144 Operations The busway includes surface and tunnel operations on exclu- sive rights-of-way. Users include Brisbane Transit and subur- Service is provided by 59-foot-long articulated buses ban bus operators who are under the bus operations center con- equipped with low entry steps, electronic stop announce- trol. Priority lanes connect with the southern busway terminus. ments, and air conditioning. Fare collection is done at a ticket counter at the entrance to each station. Tickets are sold man- Design Features ually by salesclerks, instead of through salesclerks. One ticket costs a flat rate of two Yuan (25 cents)--roughly two-thirds The two-lane busway is located along one side of the six- the cost of a subway ticket.105 lane South East Freeway, through much of the corridor. The cross section between stations consists of two 11.5-foot-wide Patronage travel lanes. Bypass lanes are provided at stations to enable ex- press buses to pass buses making stops. A 1.6-foot-wide barrier In its first 2 months in service, this BRT line attracted over- with a fence separates two 11.5-foot-wide travel lanes. These whelming ridership, with an average of about 80,000 daily lanes are flanked by two 9.8-foot-wide lanes for stopped buses. passengers. While officials originally expected a peak flow of The entire Busway envelope, including station platforms, occu- roughly 150,000 daily passengers to occur in 2007, passengers pies 69 feet right-of-way. There are 6,560 feet of elevated road- neared 130,000 on the third day of operations.106 way and 5,345 feet of tunnel. There are 140 security cameras are linked to CCTV monitors at the busway operations center. Benefits One-way travel times are reported as 37 minutes compared Stations to the previous 1-hour journey. The ten attractively designed busway stations at key nodes (six are located along the freeway) serve major activity cen- ters; they allow buses to serve low-density communities, col- Brisbane (Australia) South East Busway lect passengers on local roads, and then join the busway for a Context and Project Development History congestion-free trip to the city center. The stations have extensive monitoring surveillance and Brisbane's 10.5-mile-long South East Busway system is communications capability and provide real-time informa- perhaps the first side-running rapid transit facility along an tion. Each station provides the visual "signature" for the bus urban freeway. It complements an extensive commuter rail rapid transit service. Stations are unattended and are open system in serving the 1.8 million people living in the Brisbane 24-hours each day. metropolitan area, of which half reside in the city. Brisbane's Each station provides facilities for passengers to safely central business district employment is about 60,000. access buses arriving and departing from two platforms. The South East Busway opened between September 2000 Pedestrian overpasses enable passengers from between sta- and mid-2001 after 5 years of planning, design, and commu- tion platforms to cross the busway, and fences preclude at- nity liaison. It is a key component of Queensland Transport's grade crossings of the busway. plan for a fully integrated multimodal transport system. The Busway station design is a key component of the Busway Inner Northern Busway connects with the South East Busway system. Each station forms a significant part of the adjacent at the central Queen Street bus station. The Northern, East- landscape. The strong horizontal lines of station elements ern, and Boggs Road busways are under development. (that is, roof structures) and an emphasis on slender steel de- The South East Busway extends from the Brisbane CBD tailing and sizes produces sensitive structures and minimized to the southern suburb of Eight Mile Plain, adjacent to the visual and environmental impacts on surrounding areas. South East Freeway. Some 8 miles with six stations are alongside the South East Expressway. The A$400 million Operations busway includes 10 attractively designed stations and a bus operations center that employs modern ITS technology. It Busway service is provided to two separate areas in the traverses a highly developed urban area in a constrained Central Business District (CBD). City Expresses serve the corridor. Over half of Brisbane Transport bus routes use South Bank Cultural Centre and Queen Street. The Rockets some part of the busway. serve Queen Street and Riverside. Overlaid on these BRT services is a complex array of services that make various stops along the Busway. More than 100 scheduled routes and 2,300 105Matsumoto, N. "Analysis of policy processes to introduce Bus Rapid Transit individual bus services use a portion of the Busway on a typ- systems in Asian cities from the perspective of lesson-drawing: cases of Jakarta, ical weekday morning. Service frequencies range from 1 to Seoul, and Beijing", http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2370895/Analysis-of-policy- processes-to-introduce-Bus-Rapid-Transit. 6 minutes during peak hours, 5 to 15 minutes on weekdays, 5 106http://peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=2690 to 30 minutes on Sundays, and 10 to 60 minutes after 8:00 P.M.

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145 Patronage Benefits Busway ridership for the core services between the CBD The South East Busway is an extension of the rapid transit and Eight Mile Plains increased 42 percent between May system provided by City Train. It links major destinations, im- and October 2001--the first 6 months that the complete proves bus-rail and bus-bus transfers, and results in transit busway was open. During this period, some 9.6 million travel times that are more competitive with driving, particu- passengers were carried. The first entire year it carried larly during peak hours. The South East Busway is a showplace 17.7 million passengers, excluding special events and the of state-of-the-art technology and modern architecture. Some opening weekend. Daily boardings are approximately 375,000 (annual) private vehicle trips were converted to pub- 60,000. The City of Brisbane indicates that the busway can lic transport. carry 11,000 people per hour in each direction during the Property values have increased as much as 20 percent in peak hour. Reported peak direction volumes were up to some communities located near the Busway. Research sug- 9,500 per hour just outside the central area. The busway gests that property values increased two to three times as carries more people in the peak hour than the adjacent gen- much in communities located within 6 miles of the Busway eral-purpose freeway travel lanes. as compared with those located at greater distances.