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11 landscape of the nation was shaped by the interstates as well, offer an important tool to address the diminishing returns of creating the double-edged sword of economic growth and single-mode freeway corridors--a condition that describes low-density, suburban sprawling development. most suburban travel corridors in the United States today. Now that the Interstate Highway System is exceeding its In this sense, coordinated, high-capacity, multimodal trans- design life and with the limited availability of rights-of-way in portation systems would represent a new paradigm in corridor congested urban corridors, we can coordinate freeway rehabil- planning. itation and reconstruction with high-capacity public trans- Previous research has given us a solid understanding of portation investments, changing our travel patterns and the the factors that lead to successful freeway facilities--factors character of our urban areas in the process. such as geometric design, access ramp configurations, and These high-capacity multimodal transportation facilities surrounding land uses.3, 4 Similarly, the post-World War II could represent a new paradigm for corridor transportation struggles of the transit industry to stem the tide of losses in planning. Rebuilding portions of our freeways2 as multimodal ridership have led to a wealth of research and professional facilities could increase transit mode share, reduce automobile experiences on what makes transit systems succeed or fail.515 dependence, ensure long-term mobility, refashion portions of This literature is explored and evaluated in Chapters 3 and 4 our suburban areas to be more transit-supportive, and reduce of this report. the environmental impacts of automobile travel. Unfortunately, past research gives little information about However, our understandings of how to select, redesign, how to weave freeways, transit, pedestrians, and bicyclists and retrofit freeway corridors with transit systems that will together into truly multimodal corridor facilities. Frequently generate sufficient ridership are in their infancy. The focus of transit and freeway systems are built and operate separately this report is on identifying the key concepts that can guide and independently within the same physical corridor. There the location of high-capacity transit facilities in or near freeway are benefits to be found not only from colocating transit and rights-of-way. freeway facilities, but from the coordinated planning, design, and operation of these facilities and their surrounding built environments in a complementary fashion. Freeways and Transit-- This study focuses on developing a new understanding of and Inherent Conflicts and Potential Solutions approach to planning and implementing multimodal corridor The degree to which transit competes directly or works cooperatively with its freeway neighbor is the critical deter- minant of transit success in a multimodal corridor. Multimodal 3AASHTO (2004) AASHTO Green Book: A Policy on Geometric Design of Freeways corridor transit and freeway systems often are built to compete and Streets, 5th Edition. 4Skabardonis, A., et al. Low-Cost Improvements for Recurring Freeway Bottlenecks. directly with each other. When this happens, one mode can NCHRP Project 03-83, anticipated publication in 2010. dominate, and the freeway typically attracts the most patrons. 5Cervero, R. (1998) The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Washington, DC: As a result, the surrounding land uses and activities will be Island Press. shaped to serve the freeway, leaving transit underpatronized. 6Vuchic, V. (2005) Urban Transit: Operation, Planning and Economics. Hoboken, In the past, the inherent conflicts between transit and free- NJ: Wiley. 7Vuchic, V. (2007) Urban Transit: Systems and Technology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ways were not addressed systematically. Multimodal config- 8 Deakin, E., et al. (2002) Policies and Practices for Cost-Effective Transit urations have focused on maximizing the cost-effectiveness Investments: Recent Experiences in the United States. Transportation Research of transit investments by minimizing construction costs. The Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1799 (-1): pp. 19. 9Cervero, R., et al. (2004) TCRP Report 102: Transit Oriented Development in the emphasis has been on alignment of the right-of-way, while United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects. the implications of coordinated access across modes have not 10Ewing, R., and Cervero, R. (2001) Transportation Research Record 1780: Travel played a large role in planning decisions. Future investments and the Built Environment: A Synthesis. pp. 87114. 11Pushkarev, B. & J. Zupan (1971) Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. in multimodal corridors need to address these cross-modal Don Mills, Ontario: Indiana University Press. conflicts directly and consistently. 12Moore, T., P. Throsnes, and B. Appleyard (2007) The Transportation/Land Although multimodal corridors with coordinated access will Use Connection, American Planning Association., Planning Advisory Service, never compete with the best-performing transit-only corridors Report 546 (Chicago; www.planning.org), 2007. 13TCRP Report 27: Building Transit Ridership (1997) Transportation Research in terms of transit ridership or land use benefits, they may Board, Washington DC. 14TCRP Report 28: Transit Markets of the Future (1998) Transportation Research Board, Washington DC. 15Levinson, H. (1973) "Modal Choice and Public Policy in Transportation," 2Out of necessity and based on direction from TRB, the scope of this investigation Engineering Issues: Journal of Professional Activities, Vol. 99, No. 1, January, is limited to corridors with freeway facilities (as opposed to other highway types). pp. 6575.