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12 projects. The remainder of this chapter defines the universe In-median: transit line runs down the median of an of multimodal facilities and corridors--both successful and less existing freeway than successful--and in doing so, it identifies the parameters Adjacent: transit line runs to the side of, and imme- of the new paradigm definition. diately adjacent to, the freeway Offset: transit line runs parallel to, but up to a half-mile distant from, the freeway What Is a Multimodal Corridor? High-capacity transit facilities: Heavy rail, light rail, The basic components of a multimodal corridor are as commuter rail, or bus rapid transit. follows: Transit built in available right-of-way (if possible): Transit line built in available right-of-way (in-freeway, Transportation facilities: Discrete physical facilities for freeway-adjacent, or separated from the freeway by up to a half-mile). freeways, public transit, pedestrians, and bicycles. Multimodal transportation facilities: The combination of Multimodal case study examples were investigated to deter- the above physical transportation facilities (multimodal mine the common factors that lead to the success of each facilities incorporate freeways, transit, pedestrian facilities, system element. Once identified, these factors were analyzed to and bicycle facilities). The most prominent and often capital- identify how they work together so as to develop a new under- intensive of these transportation facilities are those that standing of how multimodal corridors and their facilities can be provide line-haul service through the length of the corridor-- successfully planned, built, and operated--a new multimodal the freeway and the high-capacity transit line. corridor paradigm. Physical context: The characteristics of the land use, urban design (street and block characteristics), and social, economic, demographic, and other corridor context factors. Why Build a Multimodal Corridor? Institutional context: The institutional arrangements for Multimodal corridors can and should be built for several physical design, freeway operations, other modal operations, reasons. These reasons will be discussed and evaluated in the and land development decisions along and near the corridor. following chapters, but in brief, they are This includes not only institutional arrangements for providing access to the corridor from the area served by the Limited right-of-way availability: Sometimes, topo- corridor but also the policies, regulations, and other trans- graphic restraints such as hills or water crossings (such as portation management actions that help determine corridor in San Francisco) require facilities to be placed together; in operations. other cases, the freeway right-of-way is superimposed on an existing rapid transit line that is to be retained (as in Chicago How these components are combined characterize the and Philadelphia). corridor: Lower-cost right-of-way acquisition: Combined transit and freeway facilities simplify land acquisition, bringing Corridor: The combination of multimodal facilities and the economies of scale to right-of-way assembly and using land uses surrounding them (corridor consisting of trans- available rights-of-way more efficiently. portation facilities and the physical context--that is, the sur- Additional and redundant transportation capacity: This rounding land uses and surface street network). provides reserve capacity for long-term travel growth in the Multimodal corridor: The combination of multimodal corridor, as well as redundant capacity to handle peak period facilities, land uses, and institutional arrangements to (recurrent) and incident-related (nonrecurrent) congestion facilitate multimodal uses. For this report, multimodal on all modes. corridors have combinations of transit and freeways with Fewer land "takings": Given that a single right-of-way can the following characteristics: be used for both transit and freeway facilities, there is poten- Parallel transit and freeway facilities: A corridor is tially less need for "takings" to acquire right-of-way, fewer considered multimodal if it contains a parallel freeway residential displacements, and less disruption of existing and a high capacity transit line (rail or bus rapid transit) neighborhoods and communities. This can increase the separated by no more than a half-mile for the length of political palatability of a transit project. two or more stations on the transit line. Transit facilities Reduced environmental and safety impacts: Combining can be built as an elevated, at-grade, underground, or transit and freeway facilities in the same alignment can effec- otherwise below-grade facility with any of the following tively attenuate noise impacts and other externalities. Putting alignments in relation to the freeway: high-speed, and thus high-decibel, investments on similar