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16 Corridor Serves Large Central Business District: Com- in corridors with transit-oriented urban form characteristics, muter travel will be encouraged on the transit line by pro- but most freeway corridors in the United States--where the viding direct service to a large CBD. Non-CBD corridor sta- lion's share of multimodal corridor opportunity sites exist-- tions will maximize automobile-access and will serve largely have decidedly automobile-oriented land uses and urban suburban, automobile-oriented residential areas. design qualities. Therefore, the new paradigm offers several paths to develop multimodal corridors. First, a transit-oriented corridor can Transit-Optimized/Freeway-Constrained be built where the transit line is given the design, operating Multimodal Corridors characteristics, and surrounding land use patterns that will A transit-optimized/freeway-constrained multimodal effectively carve out a near-exclusive corridor travel market. corridor is designed to give transit a performance advantage The second path involves a two-step process of multimodal in the corridor by constraining the capacity and performance corridor planning, design, and construction. In the first step, of the freeway. transit facilities are designed and built in freeway corridors with performance characteristics that enable them to compete Capacity-Constrained Freeway: These corridors con- with the freeway facility on a travel time basis. If done well, strain the capacity of the freeway facility, giving transit a per- this park-and-ride access model aims to design the transit line formance advantage over its freeway neighbor. to attract sufficient riders, encourage transit-oriented design Hybrid Corridor Configuration: Ideally these corridors (TOD) around its stations, and encourage the evolution of will combine the constrained freeway facility with either its surrounding corridor toward a more transit-oriented transit-oriented or park-and-ride access features to take full urban form. advantage of transit's performance advantage. The loca- The second step is to build infill stations (where economi- tion of the freeway capacity constraint (bottleneck) is often cally and operationally feasible) that provide greater coverage a transition point for the corridor, splitting it into two and accessibility for the transit riders to corridor land uses sections, one of which (typically the side leading into a and activities, which can further encourage the corridor to downtown/CBD) is transit-oriented while the other section develop additional TOD. Over time, the new paradigm process ("upstream" from the bottleneck) provides park-and-ride can lead to the conversion from a purely automobile-oriented, access. freeway-dominated corridor to a park-and-ride access multi- modal corridor to a transit-oriented corridor. Therefore, our conception of the new paradigm does not Conclusions: The Evolution of discriminate against corridors with automobile-oriented urban Multimodal Corridors Over Time form, but sees them as opportunities to build cost-effective, Transit thrives (in terms of ridership) when it operates in park-and-ride access transit lines that can be slowly transformed a pedestrian-oriented, high-density, mixed-use environment. into transit-oriented corridors, if and when real estate market It would be best for transit to build all multimodal facilities and political conditions support it.