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58 Source: Courtesy of Robert Cervero from "Green Connectors: Off-Shore Examples," Planning, American Planning Association, May 2003, p. 25. Figure 5-8. Pedestrian access priorities for Bogota's Transmilenio Bus Rapid Transit system. These green connectors have yielded substantial results, with around 45 percent of all Transmilenio riders arriving at their stations by bike or by foot. The city's long-range plans call for doubling the size of this green connector network over the next 30 years. These investments have paid off for the city of Bogota as a whole. In the 10 years since bikeways were in- troduced, cycling's share of total trips has risen from less than 1 to roughly 4 percent.15 Table 5-14 suggests the most appropriate station access measures for each new paradigm Source: Courtesy of Robert Cervero from "Green Connectors: Off-Shore corridor type. Examples," Planning, American Planning Association, May 2003, p. 27. Figure 5-7. Green connectors can provide enhanced non-motorized station access for Summary and Conclusions new paradigm facilities. Transit-oriented corridors: High-capacity/fixed-capital-asset transit modes such as concept would work well in retrofitting suburban neigh- borhoods in the United States, where the hierarchical street heavy rail, light rail and BRT networks that isolate residential neighborhoods force drivers Transit-dependent-rich market to take large arterial streets by more circuitous routes. By Concentrated station-area land uses: replacing the barriers between adjacent neighborhoods with Distributed nodes maximize activities served along entire green connectors, more direct, dedicated pedestrian and route bicycle paths can be made to encourage suburban residents Clustered mixed-use destination(s) at many locations along to walk or cycle to their nearest stations. corridor In Bogota, Colombia, the Transmilenio BRT line offers a Balanced jobs and housing in corridor (jobs clustered in fully realized vision of the potential for green connectors to station areas but dispersed along corridor) facilitate nonmotorized access to new paradigm stations. Limited parking supply and high cost of available parking The line's exclusive bus lanes are primarily in the medians of within destination CBD arterial boulevard medians--an automobile-oriented envi- Radial metropolitan alignment with transit line serving ronment with nonmotorized access challenges very similar to more than one activity center along route new paradigm facilities (see Figure 5-8). To provide pedestrian Transit-oriented land uses and urban design around stations access to these in-median stations, almost half of the line's Stations located either adjacent or offset from freeway 57 stations have pedestrian overpasses. Leading into these Short station spacings stations is a network of 130 miles of sidewalks and bikeways. Long interchange spacings

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59 Table 5-14. Station design and access new paradigm characteristics. Transit-Oriented Corridor Park-and-Ride-Access Corridor Transit-Optimized/Freeway Qualities Qualities Constrained Corridor Qualities Intermodal stations only at Most corridor stations are Downstream (non-CBD) side terminal corridor locations intermodal of freeway bottleneck: same and major freeway-to- qualities as Transit-Oriented freeway interchanges Ramp touchdowns near Corridor stations Ramp touchdowns far Upstream (non-CBD) side of from stations Large park-&-ride lots near freeway bottleneck: same station entrances qualities as Park-and-Ride- Emphasis on community- Access Corridor oriented station access Kiss-&-ride zones near station modes entrances "Green connectors" Bus bays near station provided where possible entrances to encourage nonmotorized station access Ramp touchdowns located far from stations Good access to stations on foot, by car, and/or by public Station access: transport; a minimum number of freeway interchange Intermodal stations only at terminal corridor locations ramps within walking distance of transit stations and major freeway-to-freeway interchanges A multimodal corridor that extends at least 10 miles and Community-oriented station access modes has at least eight residential "catchment" stations "Green connector" paths leading to stations Transit-supportive development in the environs of key stations Park-and-ride access corridors: An interagency multimodal corridor overlay zone that can specify uses and densities and form guidelines and At least one large activity center or anchor, usually a CBD requirements with high levels of employment Direct access to the city center and other major "anchors" Transit-optimized/freeway-constrained corridors: (This likely involves leaving the freeway to penetrate these areas) Freeway bottleneck (lane drop or other capacity constraint) Limited and costly parking in the CBD roughly mid-point in the corridor that gives transit a travel Effective transit distribution in the CBD, preferably off- time advantage in CBD side of corridor. street Transit-oriented corridor qualities downstream of freeway Constrained freeway capacity such as lane drops, route bottleneck convergence, and travel barriers Park-and-ride access corridor qualities upstream of freeway Wide station spacing that permits high transit speeds bottleneck