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97 APPENDIX C Applying Conventional Planning Concepts Toward a New Paradigm An important concept of the new paradigm is that multi- of other transportation facilities, and the configuration of modal corridors will encourage sustainable regional growth individual districts comprising station and interchange patterns. New paradigm corridors hold promise for supporting catchment areas. a diversity of land use and travel markets and allowing indi- The effects of the physical and spatial environments can vidual users and communities more seamless transitions from be differentiated based on scale. The spatial features that a freeway- and automobile-dependent pattern toward more make a potential corridor attractive at a regional scale (for sustainable ones. example, dense and heterogeneous development patterns) The pursuit of these goals does not require a revolution in the are often associated with conditions at the scale of physical practices of transportation and land use planning to become a design that can restrict options for alignment and station reality. Most of the concepts required to make the shift are fairly placement. well established; particularly when considering the physical At a regional scale, the spatial structure of a region largely and spatial challenges to planning and designing multimodal determines the market opportunities for corridor development. corridors. At the physical design (small) scale, the physical dimensions of Fortunately, transportation and land use planners have obtainable rights-of-way dictate feasible alignments and station devoted a considerable amount of time and effort over and interchange options and influence selection of transit the past quarter century to refining the tools and concepts technology once a particular corridor is identified as having applicable to conventional planning problems. As a result, multimodal potential. Each intermediate geographic scale is it is possible to identify various conventional planning con- the focus of a specific stage in the planning and design lifecycle cepts and tools that support and encourage development of of a multimodal project. a mix of activities and land uses along a corridor which in turn can justify and support new paradigm infrastructure investments. Regional Planning Concepts Background regional patterns of land use, demographics, and travel are a major determinant of success for new para- New Paradigm Physical and digm corridor implementation and performance. These have Spatial Planning Challenges historically and will continue to play an important role in As with any form of infrastructure, the geography, topog- determining whether one or more multimodal corridors can raphy and built form of a region pose tangible limitations to be supported and what configuration is best for a particular (and opportunities for) the successful placement and opera- corridor. For the new paradigm it is important that regional tions of multimodal corridors. Physical and spatial factors factors be considered above and beyond conventional thresh- can raise the costs of implementation or diminish the ultimate olds applied to justify transit. patronage of the multimodal facilities. Such actions include technical design challenges to engineering and the ability to Transit Thresholds design seamless integration of the various modes of trans- portation in a corridor. Furthermore, spatial challenges arise Generally, transit line planning and design efforts have relied from the regional distribution of activities, the influence on planning thresholds or rules-of-thumb, intended to ensure

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98 a sufficient level of patronage.1, 2, 3 As a result, transit lines are absolute thresholds established in the post-World War II conventionally anchored by major activity centers because era to screen transit projects for market feasibility. bigger and more compact activity centers generally are asso- Existing suburban activity centers often are not large ciated with higher levels of patronage. enough or designed in a transit-friendly manner to sup- Conventional standards identifying threshold size and port a high-capacity transit line because they typically density requirements are closely associated with the develop- lack a critical mass of activities to attract work trips, yet ment of rail transit infrastructure in the last quarter of the may generate automobile congestion at levels that discour- 20th Century. Updated assumptions about sensitivity to age pedestrian, bicycle, and park-and-ride activities. service characteristics, road congestion, and fuel cost may Sections of freeway corridors that tend to have largely low- lower some of the minimum standards for population and density residential, industrial, or even agricultural uses employment densities, but these thresholds still provide a present both opportunities and barriers to the successful useful first-order test to assess the strength of potential can- introduction of a high-capacity transit line. While an didates for multimodal investments. underdeveloped corridor offers the opportunity to buy land It is significant that most thresholds were developed when for a transit line right-of-way and stations at a low price, fuel prices were stable or falling relative to incomes and when they also offer low-quality transit markets to support it. decentralization was increasing in most urban centers. As a result, the cost-effectiveness of transit use has been constrained Influences Versus Thresholds during periods of low fuel cost automobile use. Recent trends in transit use following the volatility in fuel prices should lead Consideration of regional characteristics should not simply to a revaluation of some of these thresholds. replace one set of rigid rules with another. Although it is true that cities without strong radial patterns and without large, dense urban centers can be hard-pressed to justify multi- Alternative Fundamental Considerations modal corridor development, a decentralized region is not Accepting that strict thresholds are no longer appropriate an impossible barrier to successful multimodal corridor tests for the viability of multimodal corridors, other regional development. The Los Angeles Green Line/Century Freeway characteristics should be explicitly considered for their influ- Corridor is an example of a successful project within a dis- ence on the planning and successful development of multi- persed, polynucleated region. Although it does not directly serve a large activity center and runs in a circumferential pattern modal corridors. These are as follows: relative to the region's largest CBD, downtown Los Angeles, The corridor must include employment and housing the transit line serves a respectable 43,000 riders per day. Its success can be attributed to specific attention to high-quality whether segregated at separate ends or accumulated as feeder service. That service effectively addresses the decentral- mixed-use areas of sufficient density and scale to generate ized nature of individual station areas which could be con- continuous and balanced two-way travel patterns. sidered an insurmountable impediment from a conventional The core areas and inner rings of large metropolitan areas perspective. of a size exceeding historic thresholds for transit service1 should be built-out, with limited vacant or otherwise avail- Reorienting Regional Development Momentum. Ex- able land for assembling a right-of-way, let alone for easy emplary successes such as the LA Green Line arise from spe- land development to begin the task of reshaping regional cific efforts to overcome the inertia of background regional pat- growth patterns. terns. Although this inertia currently presents an obstacle, the The relative spatial distribution of people and activities hope of the new paradigm is that a focused set of planning around the urban center(s) of a region may be a more and market forces that provide segmented travel markets significant barrier to new paradigm investments than the matched to each mode can promote the success of all modes. It is important to note that, once established, regional development patterns tend to be repeated and reinforced in the future. A region's transportation and land development 1Pushkarev, B. & J. Zupan, 1971. Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. Don decisions are important tools in reinforcing or, with determined Mills, Ontario: Indiana University Press. 2"MTC Resolution 3434 Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Policy For action, reforming these patterns. Regional Transit Expansion Projects," July 27, 2005, http://www.mtc.ca. Our contemporary experience is that regions consisting of gov/planning/smart_growth/tod/TOD_policy.pdf a constellation of small- and medium-sized communities are 3Demery, L., J. W. Higgins & M. D. Setty, "Traffic Density Thresholds for Rail Transit: A Retrospective," Special Report No. 2, February 15, 2005, http://www. likely to have their investment decisions guided by these poly- publictransit.us/ptlibrary/specialreports/sr2.trafficdensityretrospective.pdf. nucleated growth patterns. Over the last half of the 20th century,

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99 market forces, regulatory processes, and traveler preferences be considered in the context of financial and institutional have adapted to, and in due course, driven these land use considerations. patterns making low density and decentralized growth the From this point of view, the decision-making process should expected norm in most of the United States. take a regional perspective on how much growth is likely to The objective of adopting a new paradigm is to stimulate occur in potential corridors and, given that growth, whether and leverage changes in market, regulatory, and user practices it is possible and desirable (for example, from a sustainability by taking advantage of opportunities to first complement the perspective) to focus so as to maximize the use and viability currently exhausted regional structure of passenger trans- of one or more multimodal corridors. At a strategic level, portation and land use with multimodal services and, over particular attention is warranted for tools that enhance cost- time, replace parts of it with robustly multimodal and transit- and revenue-sharing, market making, and other linkages on oriented features that support sustainable economic and a regional scale. lifestyle choices. Corridor Planning Concepts Regional/Strategic Planning Approaches. Many metro- politan areas have embraced the goal of better organizing From a land use perspective, a successful corridor is one that development to make individual communities and their whole achieves vitality by attracting an effective mix of employment, region more livable and sustainable. New paradigm, multi- housing, retail, and recreational activities. This generates modal freeway corridors can help to achieve these broader travel and, with success, comes congestion. At its root, corridor development objectives. planning boils down to managing tradeoffs between mobility, An important element of a strategic approach is that regional accessibility, and economic and social development. Transpor- tation infrastructure of a multimodal corridor can effectively spatial patterns should be leveraged to advance multimodal unify the communities along its length, providing similar development. It should be recognized that the congestion mobility options throughout and essentially democratizing resulting from regional growth is the feedback generated by access. It also lays the foundation for the economic and social a metropolitan system, indicating the strain generated by interaction among communities with disparate incomes, prevailing trends in land use, activity, and circulation patterns. lifestyles, activity patterns, and levels of mobility. This congestion tells planners that current trends are not Near the urban core, a radial corridor is characterized by a sustainable and that redirection is in order. Effective regional dense street grid, various modal opportunities, congested planning requires strategies to accommodate and, in some cases, roadways, multiple travel path options, and the need for encourage growth and other shifts in development patterns. frequent modal transfers. Modifications to built form and This creates opportunities to explore the role multimodal transportation infrastructure are constrained by high land alternatives have in deliberately focusing land use and eco- prices and multiple claims on the character of the urban space. nomic development activity around high-capacity transporta- Freeway access in dense areas can be minimal with isolated, tion infrastructure. single off- or on-ramps separated by blocks, whereas transit The key is to identify the means by which resources and access can be dense and even redundant in areas of concen- other benefits can be systematically extracted from growth trated activity. pressures to help cover the long-term environmental and Moving away from the urban core, metropolitan space, land financial costs of that growth. A corollary expectation is that uses, travel behavior, and economic activities are more often this creates an incentive to minimize those long-term costs. influenced by the capacity of the freeway facilities. The built A strategic approach to multimodal development seeks to environments surrounding freeways tend to be dominated by organize such value capture on a regional scale. The benefit the structures and land uses that are needed to support freeway for the region is in better environmental and fiscal outcomes, travel and access. High-capacity freeways often require large, and the direct benefit for infrastructure development is a complex ramp and interchange structures that allow high- sounder basis for attracting investment and justifying subsidies. speed, high-capacity transitions between surface streets and This possibility makes the new paradigm multimodal corridor freeways (for example, see Figure C-1). Wide, high-capacity concept attractive as a means to capture and manage regional freeways often influence street and urban design patterns well growth and travel congestion simultaneously. beyond their immediate areas. High-capacity surface streets The background arrangement of activity centers and their are often needed to feed traffic from the corridor's outlying relationships to existing transportation facilities often seems areas to the freeway facility as well. Wide arterial streets often to preclude transit investments. However, the possibility of connect to or parallel freeway facilities. developing multimodal capacity proactively, as an encour- Larger, wider freeways also influence corridor land uses. agement to future transit-supportive development, should Large freeways will often dominate their corridors, with

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100 Access Points as Coordinated Markets Access point land use and built form has significant implications for corridor performance and development. The spacing of access points can define, and in some ways constrain, corridor performance, but some limitations also present opportunities. The long-standing view is that a corridor is best for transit where land uses are segregated with a large activity center (such as a downtown) at one end and a series of largely high-density residential centers located at station areas along the corridor. In adopting a new paradigm, multimodal cor- ridors can succeed by adopting a strategic approach in which the spacing and land use character of interchange and station Source: Google Earth area are coordinated across the corridor to optimize long-term Figure C-1. Los Angeles Metro Rosa Parks Station area. patronage potential. Since freeways define the structure of most U.S. metro- politan areas, a challenge is to successfully identify opportu- nities along the existing or planned freeway network that development patterns arranged to minimize automobile can support a new paradigm corridor. In regions with a large congestion by separating uses, providing ample parking, metropolitan core, these opportunities will consist of network and lowering built densities. Junctions between freeways extensions to planned or growing suburban and exurban and major arterials commonly become focal points for major activity centers. These extensions (or radii) can be the basis for commercial centers. Usually pedestrian and transit access a more compact corridor of future growth along new paradigm is difficult. rights-of-way. Corridor access management is important to better In polynucleated regions, this challenge can be met by manage existing roadways. It also can be applied in multi- identifying high-growth nodes (activity centers) that can modal freeway corridors. Roadway options include adjusting support increased activities near network junctions (access interchange locations and configurations, ramp metering, points such as interchanges and transit stations). Such corridors and access spacing. For transit, opportunities include station will not tend to be "straight line shots." placement, pedestrian connections, feeder bus service, and A key here is to exploit tradeoffs between long-spaced free- park-and-ride facilities. Designs and mix will vary among way access points (interchanges) that leave some communities locations. without access and dense freeway access (interchanges) that The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) suggests five lead to congestion and unreliable freeway performance. Taking key factors to consider when making tradeoffs among access, advantage of these tradeoffs, opportunities emerge to move mobility, and social and economic factors. These are: citizen the corridor toward more balanced multimodalism by intro- participation, design, economic development, financing, and ducing transit access at key locations and clustering corridor governance. In each instance, a premium is placed on collab- growth at these points to stimulate patronage and transit- oration between corridor stakeholders.4 Successful collabora- supportive activity patterns. tion depends on identifying common goals and values among Freeway facilities with large interchange spacings optimize stakeholders, but the jurisdictions that constitute a corridor may speed and reduce congestion bottlenecks by reducing the seem not to have much in common. The corridor-planning amount of merging and weaving that occurs at these access process provides a forum and a framework for collaborative points. They also tend to have a lighter impact on their sur- planning, but the disparate interests of near urban and far roundings since they do not attract as much surface street suburban communities that reside along a corridor can lead traffic (going to and from the freeway), do not require the to conflict. Cases of successful corridor planning are most same magnitude of high-capacity supporting surface streets, often based on a process of compromise. An important spatial and do not generate the same magnitude of automobile- basis for this compromise can be coordination of the activity oriented development as facilities with short distances between and growth potential of individual corridor station and inter- interchanges. change areas. Generally, land values fall as distance from an interchange increases, with the result that a dense pattern of interchanges will result in denser (although typically still automobile-oriented) 4Federal Transit Administration, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Af- land uses along the corridor. This has clear implications for fairs, "Keys to Corridor Planning," June 2007. the mix of uses as well, so that high-revenue commercial

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101 destinations crowd out other uses. Since similar uses generate and the roadway. All together, a minimal urban freeway ROW similar travel patterns, this amplifies peaks in trip generation will be roughly 60 feet.6 Levinson recommends 12 feet in TCRP and congestion. Report 90 for each dedicated bus lane (for a total of 24 feet), Sparse freeway access creates an opportunity because travel 28 feet for a center or set of side platforms (at station locations), markets between interchanges are underserved and land and an additional 8 feet for two barriers between the freeway use markets can be immature. Once it is established that the and the bus-way, totaling an additional 60 feet.7 The American corridor is the preferred location for growth to concentrate Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in a region, these underserved areas become attractive for (AASHTO) recommends roughly 80 feet of ROW to provide new transit service along the corridor and new transit-oriented adequate width for a double-track rail line and station plat- development. Automotive travel can be served more modestly forms,6 although rail lines such as that seen in the median of with parallel arterials, and local circulation can be planned the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago use a ROW as narrow around high-quality bus service and non-motorized trans- as 60 feet. portation facilities. Cost, equity, and environmental concerns are the secondary In most metropolitan areas, the accumulation of dense impediments that can also limit options. Preliminary designs freeway access points has created a failure in the transportation that involve an accumulation of minor deviations from co- system. From the perspective of multimodal development alignment (often due to a mature built environment) pose this failure is an opportunity because the resulting degradation significant design challenges. Heavy rail cars, typically faster in the level and reliability of private automobile mobility and with more carrying capacity, require more right-of-way. stimulates demand for a transit component within congested Vehicles traveling at higher speeds require smoother grade freeway corridors. More congested nodes can be singled out transitions. These factors have repercussions on corridor for transit-oriented development; improvements to bus performance and marketability. The development of higher- feeder service and start-up investments in BRT can prove to performance light rail vehicles may mitigate some speed be effective near-term measures. Over time, these areas can benefits of heavy rail, but there are tradeoffs in capacity. be encouraged to become denser with more transit-oriented Multimodal concepts making effective use of BRT effectively development along the corridor supporting additional invest- circumvent these concerns and, even when ultimately travel ments in transit service. demand community preferences are for fixed-rail options, On the basis of demographics and geography, some zones BRT can provide a flexible first phase of multimodal corridor will likely maintain their automobile-oriented character while service. others will be aggressively developed as transit-oriented areas. As regional growth proceeds and congestion effects accumu- late over time, supportive policies should be in place to allow Elevated, At-grade, or Underground? low-density nodes to transform themselves, providing more opportunities for density and mix of use on the land use side Co-alignment of the transit and freeway components of a and increasing transit service options to include new access facility where the freeway facility was designed and built first, points on the transportation side. typically occur only as a result of the subsequent conversion of existing shoulder, median, or travel lane capacity. The feasibility of retrofitting a freeway facility with transit is Right-of-Way and Design Considerations greatly enhanced if the freeway is at-grade because elevated Right-of-way must be acquired for the construction of freeway structures require complex and extensive structures transportation facilities, and topography and land uses will to support them--structures that typically would complicate constrain the options and opportunities. The grade, curvature, retrofitting for transit. Tunneled and trenched freeways and cross-sectional dimensions of each component, as well as have similar limitations. When a new freeway is built, it can the degree of offset (or conversely, co-alignment) of right-of- (and should) be designed to allow a future transit facility. way reserved for each direction of each mode, will dictate the cost of a corridor alternative.5, 6 Platforms The dimensions of the right-of-way are affected significantly by the level of co-alignment between the transit component Along with conventional transit planning standards and objectives, multimodal stations and station areas should be 5Parkinson, T. & I. Fisher, "Rail Transit Capacity," Transit Cooperative Research Program Report 13, Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996. 6American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), 7Levinson, H. et al., TCRP Report 90: Bus Rapid Transfer; Voume 1: Case Studies Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 1994 in Bus Rapid Transit, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2003.

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102 designed to emphasize their role in maximizing user travel It is important that early in the project conceptualization and lifestyle options. As such, a new paradigm should provide and planning process, project champions lay the ground- exemplary ADA access and accommodation. work for consideration of new paradigm projects. In many For the corridor to be attractive, access points (stations and instances, an effective environmental review process has interchanges) need to emphasize acceptable proximity to given project participants a golden opportunity to conduct desired activities. Design factors are important in this regard outreach. since the benefits of reducing the perceived time cost of access Development of multimodal facilities combines a wide is disproportionately larger than improvements in actual range of skill sets and brings together actors who do not always cost.8, 9 Benefits in access time are valued more than bene- interact. Advantages result from delegating staff to collabo- fits in line haul travel time. Designers of multimodal facilities rate in project-focused institutions where the mission of de- and supportive environments should recognize that con- veloping the corridor can be prioritized and communications venience is not necessarily synonymous with line-haul cor- and decision making made more efficient. Federal and state ridor travel speed. agencies are aware of the complications inherent in planning and deploying major infrastructures and encourage specific practices to address these.10, 11, 12 Practical Planning Tools Many approaches applicable to any kind of infrastructure Focus on Quality Design and Service project are particularly critical to the success of new paradigm projects. It should be recognized that the success of new par- Providing a mix of differentiated transportation services adigm multimodal project development depends in part on allows travel benefits to be experienced more seamlessly how deftly advocates can use conventional planning tools to across travel sub-markets. When access points (interchanges overcome obstacles to multimodal investments. The experience and transit stations) are designed to be good fits with the documented in several multimodal freeway corridor case community they reside in, this contributes to the identity studies demonstrates that the actions of key individuals can and acceptance of the corridor. Single-mode access points, be the difference between success and failure in guiding a whether interchanges, platforms, or other structures, should multimodal corridor project to completion and that these address design challenges arising from the convergence of leaders typically rely on the same tools available in most multiple streams of traffic in a small area (see Table C-2). contexts in order to achieve their objectives. General guidance Good design can offset or eliminate negative outcomes would be to and perceptions about accessing and transferring along the corridor. Use routine processes to advance a region's multimodal potential, Focus on quality design and service, Identify Potential Linkages, Sharing, and Trades Identify potential linkages, sharing, and trades, Prioritize access area land uses and connectivity, Linkages are institutionalized relationships and connec- Identify flexible and incremental multimodal opportunities. tions among stakeholders around issues common to them (see Table C-3). Relying on and fostering linkages gives multimodal corridors promise as a potential foundation of Use Routine Processes to Advance balanced and sustainable regional growth. a Region's New Paradigm Potential Economic growth and demographic changes not only bring considerable benefits to a region but also incur significant In the course of normal corridor planning all options should economic, environmental, and social costs. Under the new be on the table, and planning organizations should routinely paradigm, each multimodal corridor can help organize that incorporate multimodal alternatives in corridor plans and corridor management plans (see Table C-1). 10FHWA, ACTION: SEP-15 Application Process, Memorandum, October 14, 2004, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/contracts/101404.cfm 8Kato, Hironori & Axhausen "Value of Travel Time Savings Incorporating the 11AASHTO, "Transportation Invest in our Future--Accelerating Project Delivery" Value of Access," Presented at the First International Time Use Observatory http://www.transportation1.org/tif7report/why_trans.html Workshop, Santiago De Chile, 2009. 12APTA Recommendations on Federal Public Transportation Authorizing 9Metz, David "The Myth of Travel Time Savings," Transport Reviews, Volume Law http://www.apta.com/gap/legissues/authorization/Documents/apta_ 28, Issue 3, London, 2008. authorization_recommendations.pdf

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103 Table C-1. Applying routine planning tools to new paradigm corridor development. Relevance for Multimodal Corridor Common Area of Tool/Approach Use Development Application ...document and ...allow for direct comparison between evaluate comprehensive multimodal and other corridor options alternatives for and recommendation of alternatives corridor circulation and action items to pursue multimodal Alternatives Corridor Plans Analysis; Policy and land use. Build investment. Highlight the ways political support for multimodal alternatives provide Implementation specific project benefits beyond highway expansion alternatives. only projects. ...identify and ...can bring focus to changes that will System evaluate specific Corridor improve multimodal performance or Management; options for detailed Management enhance the long-term potential of a Alternatives design and management Plans corridor for major investments in Analysis; Policy for operational multimodal infrastructure Implementation improvements ...allows for the simultaneous ...provides a basis for identifying Integrated completion of studies preferred multimodal alternatives and Planning and Fast-Track Project and documentation establishing the environmental costs Environmental Delivery required to complete and benefits in light of other Review long-range plans and alternatives. obtain clearances. ...provide a model for the rapid ...pre-establish review of multimodal projects compliance for defined conforming to predetermined categories of project Programmatic characteristics. Programmatic Fast-Track Project based on pre- Agreements agreements offer the possibility of Delivery negotiated conditions institutionalizing the benefits of among review multimodal projects with respect to agencies. regulatory review. Table C-2. Encouraging quality multimodal designs and service. Relevance for Multimodal Corridor Common Area of Tool/Approach Use Development Application ...establishes direct financial links Congestion ...provides system between roadway and peak transit use Roadway users with monetary and the expansion of multimodal Corridor Finance/ Pricing/ feedback on the capacity. Allows users to manage their Management Off-peak Transit variable cost of system own mobility in light of alternative Discounts use at different times. activity and travel patterns. ...facilitates user trip planning and improves ...provides a model for dependable travel time reliability transit service appropriate to "final- by implementing high Schedule-Free phase" high-intensity multimodal Transit Service Transit Service frequency service on corridor development. Provides an Planning key corridors and incremental improvement option with establishing headways high-patronage rapid bus transit rather than arrival and departure times ...facilitates user trip ...supports informed mode choice and planning and travel Intelligent real-time mid-trip mode transfer User Information response by supplying Transportation decisions to better exploit the Systems real-time information Systems; Corridor reliability benefit of the multimodal on sources of delay or Management system. changes in travel options ...minimizes system ...promises to eliminate an access and transfer impediment to mode transfer through Intelligent penalty by allowing Smart Fare/Toll integration of payment of fares, tolls, Transportation convenient payment of Collection and parking fees. This maximizes Systems; Transit fares and tolls traveler utility of the corridor by Service Planning seamlessly across allowing mode switching modes and operators. ...encourages multimodal patronage ...provides automobile by eliminating transit dependence as a Transportation Vehicle Sharing liability along the corridor and Demand access to non owners maximizing flexibility and choice for Management corridor use.

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104 Table C-3. Tools to maximize linkages. Relevance for Multimodal Corridor Common Area of Tool/Approach Use Development Application ...provides public leverage to ...has proven a valuable tool for Land Costs private partners in the assembling suitable parcels for high- Transit-Oriented Underwriting acquisition and consolidation density development in transit Development of land. station areas. ...are attractive because they ...can facilitate regionwide Corridor Finance; Tax Exempt off set some of the risk carried participation in corridor development Transit-Oriented Bonds by investors, allowing for through bond initiatives. Development lower financing costs. ...seeks to capture value of ...monetizes the expected benefit of future tax revenues flowing multimodal development in Corridor Finance; Tax Increment from development to finance supporting sustainable growth and Transit-Oriented Financing the infrastructure that links this to the funding requirements Development development requires. to let such investment happen. ...encompasses isolated agreement and broad ...formalizes the connections between authority for cost and/or the project participants and private Joint Transit-Oriented revenue sharing arrangements interests that drive land use and Development Development between transit agencies or activity patterns toward transit- local governments and private supportive mixes and densities. developers. ...allows property owners in controlled or restricted ...creates a market mechanism for Transferable development low-density focusing and organizing regional Regional Growth Development areas to benefit from the sale growth patterns along sustainable Management Rights of their development rights to multimodal growth "armatures." high-density areas with high development pressure. ...provide a basis for individual communities to achieve desired ...allow for communities to be Transportation corridor access conditions on the assessed to finance Corridor Finance Benefit Districts front end of project development and transportation improvements. a model for funding infrastructure corridor wide. ...allow regional and higher level ...include grants and other bodies to incentivize the participation funds awarded from one of local governments and eliminates a Corridor Finance; Capital Funding government body to another hurdle where inter-jurisdictional Transit-Oriented Transfers to fund capital improvements, infrastructure partnerships are not Development meeting mutual planning workable for legal or administrative goals. reasons. ...are awarded to individuals ...provide incentives for private and developments satisfying market decisions to establish land use Transit-Oriented Tax Credits beneficial criteria, e.g. project and activity trends to support Development density and mix of activities. multimodal patronage and performance. ...are territorial government entities organized to be ...provide a model for designating an independent of cities and entire corridor as a regional special counties. Enabling legislation Transit-Oriented Special Districts district with corridor-specific, can empower special districts Development multimodal planning and fiscal to undertake planning policies and implementation power. functions, redevelopment, and even assess fees and taxes. growth and minimize the associated costs. By definition, multi- bring together more stakeholders than do other projects. This modal corridors are collaborative, multi-jurisdictional, and can support the aggregation of local funding, sharing the multidisciplinary endeavors, so they provide an opportunity planning burden, and trading of local rights and resources for comprehensive planning. The corridor concept provides within a regionally defined framework. a planning framework for maintaining the regional benefits and minimizing many of the costs, and, in fact, a portion of Prioritize Access Area Land Use and Connectivity the benefits to pay the costs. There should be a greater likelihood that linkages can be Regional policies that support compact development will established precisely because multimodal corridor projects enhance transit orientation, and these policies must be

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105 Table C-4. Encouraging supportive land uses around multimodal projects. Relevance for Multimodal Common Area of Tool/Approach Use Corridor Development Application ...enable states, MPOs By targeting the funding to and other regional bodies compact transit-oriented to support regional goals development near key stations, Fast-Track Project by providing funding for corridor planners acquire leverage Planning Grants Delivery; Livability planning efforts that fall over local land use and activity Planning outside the normal range patterns even when there is no of activities conducted at inter-jurisdictional authority. the local level. ...provide additional specificity to guide ...can force the development development within around corridor access points to planning areas. For fit a profile consistent with the multimodal corridors, market objectives of the corridor Transit-Oriented Overlay Zones overlay zoning can guide as a whole and specifically to Development station areas toward achieve desired mix and density density, mix of uses, and at planned transit-oriented design features that locations along the corridor. improve access. ...allow developers to ...can induce the development respond to strong demand around corridor access points for Density Transit-Oriented by increasing unit planned transit-oriented locations Bonuses Development densities and floor area along the corridor. ratios above normal limits .. improves access among commercial and ... supports automobile residential locations in the Connective independence and enhances the Transit-Oriented access areas, reducing or Design marketability of multimodal Development eliminating automobile corridor access points. dependence for neighborhood trips. applied at station areas to help the corridor evolve, station by Identify Flexible and Incremental station, toward multimodal success (see Table C-4). A goal of Multimodal Opportunities the corridor may be to reduce the prevalence of automobile- supportive infrastructure (for example, parking) over time Flexible and gradual development of multimodal freeway as the market will bear these changes. Converting some facilities may be desirable in some cases. This is particularly parking areas to transit-oriented development may be pos- so when resources are limited or markets are underdeveloped. sible. New or redeveloped areas in the vicinity of stations In these cases, provisions should be made for developing the could incorporate context-sensitive designs that emphasize multimodal potential of corridors, flexibly and/or in stages walkability. over time (see Table C-5). Table C-5. Encouraging flexible and incremental multimodal options. Relevance for Multimodal Common Area of Tool/Approach Use Corridor Development Application ... combines travel on ...can support constituencies for Express and segments of freeway and transit service in undeveloped parallel arterial facilities, Transit Service Limited Bus and growing markets, including maximizing HOV and Planning Service low-density land use transit priority infrastucture. environments. ...provide connections ...can revive demand for existing between other modes, transit services and support including fixed-rail transit Transit Service Bus Bridges significant improvement in systems or ferry systems, Planning regional automobile free mobility expanding the market for for minimal investment. transit use. ...can spur interest in permanent ...allows for proof of multimodal alternatives on subject Demonstration concept demonstration of corridor and alternate corridors Transit Service Bus Rapid the viability of and places multimodal alternatives Planning Transit multimodal connections on list of viable options for regional for limited investment. mobility needs.

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106 Investments in small-scale and flexible multimodal facilities An obvious impediment to success arises from limited will weigh the tradeoffs of construction investments against experience with planning and implementing multimodal the actual or expected benefits of operational accommodations projects. A benefit of flexible approaches is that there is an to maximize corridor performance. Construction investments opportunity to develop the proficiency of planners and in incrementally achieved multimodal facilities will be limited managers as they develop the skills and relationships required to specific portions of the corridor that can be funded through for successful collaboration. A second benefit is that incre- pre-existing programs addressing regional congestion man- mental approaches support routine evaluation and course agement, context sensitivity, or transportation enhancement correction if the costs and benefits of outcomes do not meet objectives. expectations.