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4 Review of Research and Evaluation Literature on School Volunteerism As part of its inquiry into the use of volunteers in schools, the commit- tee conducted a search for literature and research over the past three decades on the subject of school volunteerism. The information bases examined by the committee included the U.S. Department of Education's Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC); the Library of Congress's index of published and unpublished doctoral dissertations and masters' theses; indexes of professional journals and other publications in educa- tion, sociology, and psychology; computerized subject-matter indexes provided by the Library of Congress and a number of organizations; and a variety of materials, including annual reports, prepared by volunteer programs and school districts. An annotated bibliography of the litera- ture is included as Appendix B of this report. The committee also reviewed a number of articles about school volun- teers published during the 1970s and 1980s in education periodicals and professional journals, which are included in the annotated bibliography. Manuals published by professional organizations and others to assist school districts in organizing and managing school volunteer programs were also examined by the committee; although not considered part of the re- search base, these are listed in the annotated bibligraphy. In addition, the committee examined many school volunteer programs that produce bro- chures, manuals, promotional materials, and annual reports that are not included in the bibliography but that can be obtained from the programs themselves. This review addresses reported research on school volunteerism only. Many other areas of education research such as use of paid paraprofes- sionals, parental involvement, community education, and the growing in 31
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32 VOLUNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS volvement of business in partnerships with schools may have a bearing on this study but, because of constraints of time and resources, the com- mittee did not investigate them. THE RESEARCH For purposes of this review, the research studies have been grouped into three general divisions: the use of volunteers in instructional support activities, the effects of volunteers on other than the academic achieve- ment of students, and the effects of volunteers on schools and classrooms. Many studies overlap and could be included in more than one of those sections, but each study is referenced only once. Use of Volunteers in Instructional Support Activities Tutoring According to data on volunteer utilization, one of the services most commonly provided by volunteers in schools is tutoring. Tutoring has also been more extensively studied than any other volunteer activity. The committee identified a number of studies dealing specifically with tutor- ing by volunteers; of these, almost all reported academic gains for tutored students greater than those for students who were not tutored or greater than would otherwise have been expected for the tutored students. In no instance did researchers report negative effects on academic performance. Researchers also saw effects of tutoring other than academic, including increased confidence and self-esteem on the part of students. In the case of peer and cross-age tutoring, both academic and psychological benefits were reported for the tutors as well. Tutoring is recognized as an effective teaching method. Bloom (1984) found that with a trained tutor 98 percent of students perform better aca- demically than those taught in conventional classrooms with one teacher. Cohen and others (1982), in a meta-analysis of findings from 65 indepen- dent evaluations of school tutoring programs that used a variety of staff- ing patterns, found most of the programs had positive effects on academic performance and attitudes of tutees and positive effects on tutors. Among the studies of volunteer tutoring was an analysis conducted in 1972 with funding from the U.S. Department of Education. Plantec and others (1972), in a final report on the pilot "Project Upswing,' supported by the Office of Education, described programs in four cities Denver, Colorado; Oxford, Mississippi; St. Louis, Missouri; and San Francisco, Cali- fornia that tried to determine whether 1st grade children with minimal learning difficulties can be aided by volunteer tutors. In each program,
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION LITERATURE 33 children selected by their teachers were randomly assigned to three equal- sized groups; one group was given trained volunteer tutors, one had un- trained volunteer tutors, and a third group was untutored. Plantec re- ported that tutored children made greater gains in reading than control group children whether tutors had been trained or not, and gains in read- ing skills were accompanied by gains in self-esteem. Another federally supported school volunteer project, funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in the mid-1970s, included an evaluation of the performance in reading and mathematics of students in grades 5 6 in Dade County, Florida, public schools who were assisted by trained parent volunteer tutors, compared with unaided stu- dents (Dade County Public Schools, 1975~. The study involved 236 stu- dents who were 1 or more years below national norms in mathematics and reading achievement. Tutored students made more than 1-year grade equivalent gains in reading, while untutored students gained only one- third year. Results were similar in mathematics. Eberwein and others (1976), in a selected review of 34 studies on the effects of volunteer tutoring programs in reading, noted that experimental students generally showed greater academic progress with tutors than without. Tutored children made significantly greater gains in reading skills, including word knowledge, composite reading, and reading com- prehension, than did untutored students in control groups. Tutoring, in the studies reviewed, was provided by parents, other adult volunteers, and cross-age volunteers. Peer or cross-age tutors elementary or secondary students of the same age as the tutees or slightly older are used in many schools, and Hedin (1987) reports they may be even more effective than adult tutors. In a meta-analysis of tutoring, Cohen and others (1982) found that in 45 of 52 achievement studies, students tutored by other students scored higher on examination performance than students in conventional classes. A study of a "turn-about" program in Florida (Dade County Public Schools, 1980) reported that students in grades 1~ who were tutored by 7th and 9th grade students made greater gains on standardized tests than untutored students. Gains were even greater for students when tutors received spe- cial training. Hedin noted that tutoring by students "could potentially be a great asset to those faced with having to teach large classes of students with widely divergent ability." Adding scores of "auxiliary teachers" who can provide individual attention to students at no additional cost has signifi- cant potential for increasing the teacher's productivity, she said (Hedin, 1987~. College students are also effective volunteer butors, according to a re- cent study by the U.S. Department of Education (Reisner, Petry, and
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34 VOLUNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Armitage, 19891. The study, mandated by Congress in the Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988, reported on tutoring programs for disadvantaged elementary and secondary students that involved college students as tutors. A survey conducted in connec- tion with the study found that volunteer tutoring and mentoring pro- grams are under way in 1,700 of the nation's 3,200 colleges and universi- ties, and most of them designate tutoring as their primary service. Effects on tutored students included improvements in test scores, grades, or aca- demic ability (reported by 11 of 19 projects reviewed); improvement in motivation and attitude toward education; exposure to new environments and role models; and increase in self-esteem. Other Instructional Support Activities While tutoring has been the volunteer activity most often studied by researchers, there is also a body of research studies on the use of volun- teers in other instructional activities. In the studies reviewed, volunteers participated with teachers in a variety of ways to augment and reinforce learning; in some cases, teachers and volunteers were trained together to implement innovative or experimental instructional strategies. The com- mittee believes that this research suggests promising new directions for school volunteerism. Among the examples of nontutorial volunteer activities were a San Francisco immigrant literacy project (see Armstrong, Northcutt, and Davis, 1987) in which volunteers read to and listened to reading by students in grades K-5 who had limited English skills. The researchers concluded that a teacher-volunteer team approach can be effective in enhancing stu- dents' attitudes toward and enjoyment of reading and can also improve basic language arts skills. They also found that students made much greater gains in grade level when the project was implemented schoolwide for a full academic year than when it was implemented for 6 months in one classroom. In another San Francisco project (see Armstrong and Crowe, 1987), teachers and volunteers were teamed for the purpose of developing stu- dents' problem-solving skills in mathematics. Both teachers and volun- teers received training in problem-solving approaches. Students showed 20-25 percent increases in problem-solving ability without loss of compu- tational skills and demonstrated statistically significant increases in posi- tive attitudes toward mathematics. High school foreign-language students increased their oral proficiency in a target language when teams of teachers and college student volun- teers focused on conversational activities rather than grammar and sen- tence patterns (see Armstrong, Davis, and Northcutt, 1987~. The most fre- quent use of volunteer time was to lead students in conversation.
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION LITERATURE 35 Use of volunteers to give extra time and attention to handicapped stu- dents was given impetus by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, which called for "mainstreaming" handicapped children in regular classrooms whenever possible. Cuninggim and Mulligan (1979) cited examples of programs in which volunteers aided in developing aca- demic skills and self-confidence in mildly handicapped students. Schulze (1979) found that given proper training and supervision, volunteers helped dyslexic students achieve significant academic gains. In another project, a tutorial relationship between high school volunteers and peer-aged mod- erately retarded students participating in individually prescribed programs of physical activity produced significant improvement in gross motor abili- ties in the students (Bechtold, 1977~. In a report published by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Katz (1984) described the benefits of involving volunteers in vocational education; the report includes guidelines for monitoring pro- gram progress and evaluating the effects of the program. Effects on Students Other Than Academic Achievement Many research projects were looking for, and found, effects other than academic achievement for school volunteer programs. The effects include attitudinal changes in students, measured in terms of classroom behavior, attendance, or staying in school, rather than on academic outcomes. Much of the evidence from this type of research is perceptual: teachers and vol- unteers are asked how they feel about or perceive certain activities. However, data on school or class attendance as an indication of change are also often analyzed as part of the study. The approaches used to obtain these kinds of data included questionnaires completed by teachers, school administrators, and volunteers. This research bears out anecdotal reports that students grow in self-esteem and confidence as the result of interactions with volunteers. For example, teachers and volunteers who completed a detailed ques- tionnaire about their perceptions of a Florida school volunteer program (Schaffner, 1987) said that the presence of volunteers in classrooms af- fected student learning and attitudes positively, as evidenced by improve- ment in behavior and attitudes as well as test scores. Carney and others (1987), using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale to measure at- titudinal changes in children in a "grandparent" program in grades ~5, reported significant increases in self-concept scores for students in grade 3, though not in grades 4 and 5, as the result of the grandparent program. Qualitative information from teachers indicated they believed children's self-concept had improved. In another program, the Federal City Council, a civic organization in Washington, D.C., recruited scientists and mathe- maticians to serve as volunteers in D.C. public schools in 1986-1987. After
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36 VOLllNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS a year in which these volunteers went into schools to lecture, conduct demonstrations, coach students for competitions, and lead science and math clubs, students were asked if their feelings about science and math had changed. Students reported they were more likely to study science and math and to seek science- and math-related careers as a result of the volunteers' interest and encouragement (Federal City Council, 1987~. Many of the studies on tutoring cited above also studied and reported on posi- tive changes in attitudes and behavior of students as a result of their work with volunteers. Effects of Volunteers on Schools and Classrooms Apart from the effects of volunteer interventions on students, research indicates that volunteer involvement positively affects the structure and operation of classrooms, the teaching practices of teachers, and public at- titudes toward education. One of the most important studies in this area was conducted by Hedges (1972) in Canada. Hedges created a model for volunteer parent involve- ment and evaluated volunteer use in three schools that implemented the model. In one case, the scheduled presence of volunteers freed teachers to engage in curriculum development; in another, volunteers enabled the school to mainstream handicapped students; and in the third school, large numbers of volunteers in a classroom allowed the teacher to individualize instruction and to give more time to '`higher-order" functions such as initiating and evaluating learning. Students in the third school made dramatic gains in comparison with the control classes in all of the mea- sured objectives, with an average gain in reading comprehension of 2.0 years. Although evaluation by the developer of a program must be inter- preted with caution, the committee was interested in the Hedges study as a promising avenue for further research. Streit (1975) examined the effect of an instructional volunteer program on an elementary school in Michigan. Students taught reading skills by volunteers made progress, and there were positive changes in attitude, social adjustment, overall academic achievement, and letter grades. Teacher effectiveness was greater because of volunteers, but some teachers viewed volunteers as a threat. Parents whose children worked with an instruc- tional volunteer supported the program, and volunteers expressed more understanding of school problems than they had previously. A 3-year evaluation (Armstrong and Crowe, 1987) of a program in which student volunteers from colleges of teacher education worked with teachers in grades 2-5 to improve students' math skills through coopera- tive learning and use of manipulatives found that students maintained and in some cases increased computation skills in spite of the shift away
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION LITERATURE 37 from drill and practice classroom teaching strategies. Teachers reported that having a trained volunteer in the classroom was one of the most valuable aspects of the project, and the presence of the volunteer was identified as the critical ingredient in implementing cooperative learning. A survey of Maryland school principals (Vassil, Harris, and Fandetti, 1988) found that principals believe school programs have been positively affected by volunteer services, including an increase in resources for in- structional programs, improvement in students' behavior, and more use of school facilities after regular school hours. Principals also noted that volunteer services help to forge closer links between schools and commu- nity agencies and business and industry. , Holzmiller (1982) used regres- sion methodology to determine the effects of volunteer aides on class- rooms of children in grades 2-5. He found that volunteers enhanced teacher effectiveness and increased student achievement in reading and grammar on all grade levels, irrespective of aptitude, sex, and ethnicity. Hill (1980) was apparently the first to attempt a research analysis of the structure of volunteer programs themselves. She classified characteristics of 20 award-winning volunteer programs by frequency, producing a check- list of elements that are characteristic of successful programs. Organiza- tion and management were key factors. She suggested development of a workable model for recording and analyzing the volunteer contributions to show cost-benefit ratios and a method for collecting data from the client the student. The committee is aware that volunteers provide noninstructional ser- vices to schools that may significantly affect daily operations. This kind of volunteer activity working in school offices and libraries, supervising playgounds and cafeterias, monitoring field trips, fund raising, and coach- ing, for example-has not been the subject of research, so far as the com- mittee could find, but data on school volunteerism suggest that it ac- counts for many thousands of volunteer hours each year. The Problem of Evaluation in Volunteer Programs In its review of research and from other observations, the committee became aware that evaluation of student or program outcomes is a prob- lem for school volunteer programs. To some extent this is understand- able: good evaluation is expensive, and few local school systems have the staff or resources to conduct it. It is usually difficult to justify evaluation expenditures for a "free" or "low-cost" activity such as a volunteer pro- gram. Research into the effects of volunteers on student academic achieve- ment is often complicated because of mixed program objectives. For ex- ample, when volunteers have been welcomed into schools, it has often
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38 VOLUNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS been for reasons (including public relations or parent involvement) that are not directly related to their effectiveness in aiding students or their contribution to the educational objectives of the schools. Identifying and measuring their impact on students under these conditions is particularly difficult. When the primary objective is public relations or parent in- volvement, these aspects of volunteer programs have not seemed to re- quire examination. Furthermore, educators are generally reluctant to as- aibe educational change to any one factor, pointing out that many influ- ences on students occur at the same time, including, for example, im- proved curriculum, skillful teaching, or parental support. It is therefore often difficult to identify and measure the contribution of volunteer inter- vention to academic improvement. These and other factors currently inhibit rigorous evaluation of the ef- fects of volunteer programs. In summary: · Volunteer programs usually work on small budgets, and good evalu- ation is expensive. Few school administrators or volunteer coordi- nators have been willing to divert resources from service to evalu- ation. Evaluation is a demanding craft. Not many people are well trained in its exercise. . _ O ~ · It has generally been taken for granted that volunteers help stu- dents. Very few people raised the question of how much benefit was being provided. It did not seem an important issue to quantify the gains from a "free resource." · Student achievement is not always the best measure of volunteer ef- fectiveness. Aside from the long-standing debate about the appro- priateness of test scores as a measure of educational progress, volun- teer programs can question the use of test scores to measure their ef- fectiveness on several grounds: Not all volunteers work in classrooms with children. Some do clerical work to relieve the teacher of paperwork, some take children on trips, some work in the school library on such tasks as cataloging and ordering. Some prepare exhibits and displays. It is inappropri- ate to judge such contributions on the basis of gains in student achievement. Even in the classroom, some of what volunteers offer is a wider view of the world: they tell stories about local history; they offer windows on a wide range of careers; they are available to listen to children and hear their views and concerns. Again, gains on achieve- ment tests are not appropriate assessments of such activities.
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION LITERATURE 39 When volunteers do provide instruction, they are not the only people who are teaching the children. The teacher or teachers of the school are simultaneously involved in instruction. Methodologically, there is a major problem: How is it possible to single out the unique contribution that volunteers make to children's test scores? This question is particularly difficult since volunteers do not work with a random sample of students, but usually with students most in need of extra help. Despite these limitations, the committee concluded that information from evaluations, when properly conducted, is likely to result in signifi- cant improvements in the use of volunteers in education. The committee therefore urges and supports evaluation, under the following conditions: 1. Student gains on achievement tests are not the only, or necessarily the best, outcome measure to use. Since volunteer programs encompass a broad range of goals, evaluation should consider the outcomes relevant to each program in its own setting. 2. Multiple measures of outcomes should be used. 3. Evaluations should look not only at outcomes but also at the process of the program under study. That is, evaluation should study the specific activities that volunteers undertake, the frequency with which they are performed, and the conditions under which they occur. Most important of all, the process (activities) by which the program is implemented should be related to the outcomes achieved. In that way, evaluation begins to specify the concrete kinds of activities that are more, or less, successful in achieving different kinds of outcomes. Then, evaluations can do more than render judgment on a program: they can show which kinds of ac- tivities are more effective in achieving specific ends, and they can point the way to improvement in program design and implementation. 4. Qualititative methods for collection and analysis of evaluation data can be just as useful as quantitative methods. The choice of evaluation data and methods depends on the specific intent and focus of a particular study. There is now sufficient evidence that volunteers have positive effects on students: what is needed is more sophisticated information on how volunteers affect students and how to optimize the positive effects. In light of the difficulties of designing and conducting adequate evalu- ation, and its cost, the committee believes that federal and state govern- ments and private foundations should support studies that will provide guidelines to program administrators and educators on appropriate means of evaluating the effects of volunteers in schools.
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40 VOLUNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The committee was impressed that findings about the effects of school volunteers in the reported research were almost uniformly positive. Con- versely, almost nothing indicated negative effects resulting from volun- teer use in the schools. We point out, however, that the bulk of the studies relate to tutoring. In this area, the reasonably large number of rigorous studies conducted over the past two decades persuade us of the positive academic results of volunteer activities. Many of these studies also ob- tained and reported on noncognitive gains, including improvements in motivation and attitudes toward education, exposure to new environments and role models, and increase in self-esteem. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to point out that the body of research on school volunteers, except for studies of tutoring, is limited in quantity and scope. Most of the studies are local and often involve only a few classes or a small number of students. A number of those reviewed were poorly conceived, with apparent faults in methodology, so that their re- sults were inconclusive. For example, a number of the researchers noted that the time allotted for their investigations was too short to measure change and that outcomes such as reading improvement might have been different if the volunteer interventions had continued for longer periods. Some of these investigations were experiments set up to test specific re- search hypotheses with respect to use of volunteers in the classroom. Of- ten these experiments were conducted in schools that had no previous use of volunteers and that had to deal with the shakedown process inevitable when something new is added to the instructional delivery system. In some instances there were only a few studies on which to base conclu- sions. The importance of training on volunteer effectiveness, for example, rests on only a few studies that attempted to examine this variable and other studies that imply but do not measure its importance. The commit- tee is persuaded that for some activities, particularly for effective tutoring and mentoring, training is an important factor, but more and better con- ceived studies on this variable are clearly needed. More broadly, the committee became aware of a number of issues or questions on which research is needed, particularly if use of volunteers in schools is expanded. For example, the question of equity needs further research. Because use of volunteers is largely determined at the individ- ual school level, it is possible that some schools in well-to-do areas, possi- bly those with well-informed or knowledgeable parents, are more likely to use volunteers than schools in poorer areas. If so, how expanded use of volunteers could be implemented so that it does not increase inequity between schools is a question for research. The cost of volunteer programs is another topic that needs study. Be
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND EVALUATION LITERATURE 41 cause it is assumed that school volunteers are a low-cost, even free re- source, little attention has been paid to the "cost-benefit ratio" of volun- teer programs. Generally, it is assumed that the value of volunteer ser- vices far exceeds the administrative and other costs associated with such programs. However, available studies addressing this question are over- simplified, and we urge further research and analysis in this area. With increasing use of computers and telecommunications in educa- tion, the question of the role that Volunteers might play in enhancing use of technology by students should also be investigated. Furthermore, as already indicated, there has been virtually no research on the consider- able use of volunteers in clerical and other supportive activities. Anecdo- tal evidence attests to the value of such services, but research and analysis are needed to provide us with a better understanding of the impact of such services. Studies of the effects of volunteers on the structure and operation of schools and classrooms, the practices of teachers, and public attitudes are also needed. The studies now available provided the committee with some insights, but much more needs to be known. Finally, more research and evaluation focused directly on the impact of volunteers are needed. Studies now available to us on attitudes, behavior, and other effects are largely based on teacher or volunteer perceptions; rarely is information obtained directly from the student. In summary, the committee concludes that additional research and evaluation studies on the use of volunteers in schools are needed. The committee recommends that the federal government and foun- dations provide funding for some systematic analysis and evalu- ation of the content, implementation, and impact of school volun- teer programs. · The committee recommends that the U.S. Department of Educa- tion and private foundations and universities sponsor specific in- vestigations and examinations of the role volunteers play in im- plementing education practices found to be effective in improving student learning. REFERENCES Armstrong, Patricia M., and Amy Bassell Crowe 1987 Final Evaluation Report, Project Math in Action. San Francisco School Volun- teers, San Francisco Unified School District. Armstrong, Patricia M., Patrick Davis, and Cherise Northcutt 1987 Final Evaluation Report, Project Year 198~87, Project Interconnections II. San Francisco School Volunteers, San Francisco Unified School District.
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42 VOLUNTEERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS Armstrong, Patricia M., Cherise Northcutt, and Patrick Davis 1987 Year End Evaluation Reports, Project Years 1985 86 and 198~87, Project Book Your Time. San Francisco School Volunteers, San Francisco Unified School Dis- trict. Bechtold, Warren Willard 1977 The Effect of a Tutorial Relationship Between High School Student Volunteers and Peer-Aged Moderately Retarded Students Participating in Individually Pre- s~ibed Programs of Physical Activity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. School of Education, Boston University. Bloom, B. S. 1984 The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutonng. Educational Leadership (May):~17. Carney, John M., Judith E. Dobson, and Russell L. Dobson 1987 Using senior citizen volunteers in the schools. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development (March):13~143. Cohen, Peter A., James A. Kulik, and Chen-Lin C. Kulilc 1982 Educational outcomes of tutoring: a meta-analysis of findings. American Educa- tional Research Journal (Summer):237-248. Cuninggim, Whitty, and Dorothy Mulligan 1979 Volunteers and Children with Special Needs. Alexandria, Va.: National Association of Partners in Education. Dade County Public Schools 1975 School Volunteer Development Project. Miami, Fla.: Dade County Public Schools. Dade County Public Schools 1980 Evaluation of Training for Turnabout Volunteers. Miami, Fla.: Dade County Public Schools. Eberwein, Lowell, Lois Hirst, and Susan Magedanz 1976 An Annotated Bibliography on Volunteer Tutoring Programs. Paper presented at annual meeting of Southeast Regional Reading Conference. University of Kentucky. Federal City Council 1987 Scientists in the Classroom: One School District's Experience with Science and Mathematics Volunteers in Elementary and Secondary Schools. Washington, D.C.: Federal City Council. Hedges, Henry G. 1972 Using Volunteers in Schools: Final Report. Ontario Department of Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, St. Catherines Niagara Center, Toronto, Canada. Hedin, Diane 1987 Students as teachers: a tool for improving school climate and productivity. Social Policy (VVinter):42~7. Hill, Corrine Paxman 1980 A Comparative Shady of Formal Volunteer Programs in Educational Settings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Department of Educational Administration, University of Utah. Holzmiller, Robert Joseph 1982 Using Volunteer Aides in a K-5 Elementary School. Unpublished doctoral dis- sertation. University of Arizona. Katz, Douglas S. 1984 Volunteers arid Voc Ed. Information Series 271. Columbus, Ohio: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, Ohio State University.
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REVIEW OF RESEARCH ANI) EVALUATION LITERATURE 43 Plantec, Peter M., B. Paramore, and J. Hospodar 1972 Final Report on the Evaluation of Project Upswing's First Year. Silver Spring, Md.: Operations Research, Inc. Reisner, Elizabeth R., Christene A. Petry, and Michele Armitage 1989 A Review of Programs Involving College Students as Tutors or Mentors in Grades K-12. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Education. Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, D.C. Schaffner, Deanne 1987 A Study of the Effectiveness of Volunteers in the Classroom. Unpublished master's thesis. College of Education, University of Central Florida. Schulze, Sally Reddig 1979 Evaluation of a Paraprofessional/Volunteer Program to Improve the Reading, Language, and Math Skills of Dyslexic Students. Unpublished doctoral disserta- tion. Department of Education, Case Western Reserve University. Streit, John Frederick 1975 The Effect of an Instructional Volunteer Program on an Elementary School. Un- published doctoral dissertation. Wayne State University. Vassil, Thomas V., Oliver C. Harris, and Donald V. Fandetti 1988 The Perception of Public School Administrators Regarding Community Educa- tion Programs Sponsored by Maryland State Department of Education. Survey commissioned by Adult and Community Education Branch, Division of Instruc- tion, Maryland State Department of Education. University of Maryland School of Social Work and Community Planning, Baltimore, Md.
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