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12 of solutions considered in corridor planning; or decision- of the vision's organizational structure may depend on making principles for future transportation systems may the number of public agencies, institutional partners, and provide direct input into developing consensus on a draft community stakeholders involved. Public involvement transportation improvement plan. Applications of visioning tools and techniques, and technical scenario modeling or in support of transportation planning have included all modes, illustrating approaches also must be scaled to reflect the from the development of integrated centers to seaport master geographic area. plans to high-speed passenger rail corridors. Visioning also Community context influences the focus of a vision as well may suit any scale of planning effort, from broad, regional, as the challenges and solutions to the issues presented. long-range transportation plans to urban transit corridor Addressing an issue such as the future of the transporta- plans to the design of local streetscapes. Visions may support a tion system may be common to many visioning processes, single project or provide a foundation for many subsequent although the solutions offered depend on the vision's rural, plans, including the strategic plans of transportation agencies urban, or suburban context. Expanding transit options is themselves. a recurring outcome of many metropolitan visioning pro- However, in the United States, visioning in support of cesses, as is improving bicycle and pedestrian accessibility transportation planning has not been uniformly embraced by in suburban-oriented contexts, but these solutions may practitioners and remains an underdeveloped concept and not be appropriate in rural areas with a need for increased underutilized practice. This research seeks to identify core highway capacity. elements of a visioning process and to establish relationships Topical scope is important as visioning processes become to transportation planning to be used in future efforts. increasingly expansive and comprehensive in their outlook. Traditionally, many visions focused on the location and patterns of future transportation networks or land develop- Visioning in Practice ment patterns; however, visioning processes are increasingly To better understand how visioning processes have been addressing the full breadth of interrelated systems, including applied in transportation planning, this project reviewed economic development, housing, public health and safety, selected national examples of visioning processes, studying education, environment, and community resources. the scope and scale of the process, partners and public involved, Level of effort involved in developing the vision is a key community context considered, commitments made, and dimension that varies widely but provides significant lessons implementation activities. Lessons learned and key success learned for future processes. A visioning process is often factors were developed based on a synthesis of these examples scoped according to the availability of financial and staff and offer conclusions addressed in this project and questions resources. As such, a large range of public involvement for further research. techniques and tools have been developed to adapt to any This section outlines the process for screening and select- given process, from large-scale, technically complex efforts, ing 20 case studies for documentation. The case studies to simple but effective visualization and scenario planning illustrate the breadth of practice of visioning processes with games, to innovative public input provided by city planning trans portation as a key element of planning. Some examples professionals hosting walking community audits. focus on specific highway projects, others on regional trans- Ownership of the process and of related planning efforts portation plans; others represent comprehensive planning refers to the agency or agencies that assume responsibility efforts encompassing transportation and other planning for coordinating implementation and tracking commit- dimensions. Brief summaries of the 20 case studies appear in ments. Although visioning processes are used to develop Table 2.1, and complete summaries appear in Appendix A guidance for a public project or planning effort, the pro- (online only). cesses themselves are not always initiated or managed by The subsequent tasks of this project relied on the selection public agencies. For example, a regional vision effort may of example visioning processes and the information developed be led by a private organization but maintain strong ties to to understand more fully the use of visioning as related to the agencies responsible for transportation planning and transportation planning. The research effort was initiated with program development. a set of five major typology filters to ensure that the examples selected covered a range of visioning processes: Selection Methodology Geographic scale is a key dimension of any visioning process To develop a representative cross section of case studies, the and informs nearly every other aspect of an effort. Vision- research team sampled a broad list of potential candidates, ing processes may take place at a project, neighborhood, conducted a systematic review, and selected 20 studies for community, regional, or multistate level. The complexity in-depth research.

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13 Table 2.1. Examples of Visioning Processes Selected for Further Study Visioning Process Description Envision Utah and In partnership with public and private partners Envision Utah developed a vision to address quality growth and is Wasatch Choices commonly considered a model for civic engagement. A related regional effort created a vision with guiding principles 2040 that were adopted into long-range transportation plans in the Greater Wasatch Valley, Utah. Envision Missoula Convened by the Missoula Metropolitan Planning Organization, this visioning process developed alternative land use and transportation priorities for the region to use within a larger update to the long-range transportation plan (LRTP) for Missoula County, Montana. Bluegrass Tomorrow Bluegrass Tomorrow, a Central Kentucky civic organization, was formed to advance regional coordination and has sustained visioning efforts addressing quality of life and economic vitality in the region for more than a decade. Transportation The Mid-America Regional Council leveraged a required long-range plan update to convene a broad visioning Outlook 2040 process that resulted in a vision that addresses the role of transportation in the region's future. Vision Metcalf As part of urban revitalization efforts, the City of Overland Park, Kansas, used community visioning with extensive visualization exercises to develop a vision, including transportation alternatives and design concepts, for the Metcalf Avenue urban corridor. 2040 Vision for the The 2040 Vision initiative was a departure from the organization's historic role of focusing on short-term operational I-95 Corridor improvements for the I-95 corridor. To address long-term issues and to provide members with a guiding framework Coalition for the future, the coalition embarked on a strategic visioning process. Oregon Transportation Initiated by the governor to address long-term transportation challenges and to shape near-term transportation Vision Committee legislation, the Vision Committee was an effort to develop consensus among public representatives and private leaders on future transportation priorities and funding approaches. I-90 Snoqualmie Pass The Washington Department of Transportation led an innovative public involvement approach to solicit community East Project preferences and develop preferred solutions for improvements within the I-90 corridor. Resulting projects will improve the safety and reliability of the corridor while restoring and preserving delicate ecosystems within the Central Cascades. Vision for Route 50 The Route 50 Corridor Coalition organized community opposition to a proposed capacity project and advanced Scenic Byway community interests by developing a vision and preferred alternative for enhancements to a rural byway in Virginia. Atlanta VISION 2020 Convened by the Atlanta Regional Commission to address the region's rapid growth, the VISION 2020 effort lacked consensus among public-sector actors and did not result in the translation of vision initiatives and policies into regional action. Community Technical The New Hampshire Department of Transportation introduced an innovative program to help develop community-based Assistance Program visions with transportation and land use components in response to reconstruction projects along the I-93 corridor. California Regional The California Department of Transportation's Blueprint grant program for MPOs advances regional coordination by Blueprint Planning enabling the development of consensus growth visions, which provide guidance for long-range transportation plans, Program land use, housing, and environmental issues. Vision PDX Championed by the City of Portland, Oregon, the Vision PDX process applied innovative techniques for public involvement to develop a vision for the built, economic, environmental, and social future for the city over 20 years. Riverfront Parkway Chattanooga Venture was a pioneering organization that led many community-based efforts in the 1980s. Transportation Plan The foundation provided by early visioning efforts led to action on several significant downtown development projects in Chattanooga, Tennessee--including the Riverfront Parkway Plan, which transformed a state highway into a pedestrian-friendly, two-lane road reconnecting the city to the river. Arizona State Road 179 The Arizona Department of Transportation used a community-driven, needs-based implementation planning process for reconstructing an environmentally sensitive corridor. The process evaluated solutions based explicitly on community values and with direct input from citizen advisory design teams. Transportation 2040 Developed by the Puget Sound Regional Council, Transportation 2040 represents the integration of the region's and Vision 2040 long-range transportation plan with the goals and principles established in the region's Vision 2040 visioning process. Vision Idaho Sponsored by the Idaho Department of Transportation, this process articulated a 30-year transportation vision for the state, including highway, public transit, bicycle, pedestrian, water, air, information technology, and rail systems. How Shall We Grow? Convened by the civic organization, this visioning and public involvement campaign led to the development of a shared regional growth vision for Central Florida. The resulting growth principles continue to be supported by partners and implemented in regional transportation plans and local land use plans. New Visions 20152030 In the 1990s, the Capital District Transportation Committee began a dialogue on emerging regional issues related to transportation and land use. Since then, the New Visions regional planning and visioning effort has been continually updated and provided the framework for regional investments and local implementation efforts. Metro Vision 2035 An ongoing effort of the Denver Regional Council of Governments since the 1990s, the Metro Vision process has resulted in a broad regional plan for future growth and development that provides direct linkages to the region's long-range transportation plan and urban growth boundary.