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C H A P T E R 1 Project Background Purpose of the Project Conduct a literature review to complete an introduction on the state of the art of visioning after the 1991 passing of the SHRP 2 developed a planning and project decision-making Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). framework to integrate transportation considerations with Using reviews of existing academic literature and state and community, socioeconomic, and environmental issues, federal policy guidance on successful visioning, the purposes, through collaborative decision making. This research has evolution, and adaptation of visioning were documented. led to development of a Decision Guide as a tool for prac- Compile case studies and complete practitioner interviews to titioners to reach balanced, consensus-driven decisions for document the key lessons learned from visioning pro- enhancing transportation capacity. cesses. Twenty case studies were selected to represent a This project supports these research efforts by developing diversity of geographic scale, community context, topical a blueprint for visioning linked closely to the Decision Guide. scope, and level of effort. The case studies were assembled The objective of this project is to determine the role of vision- based on telephone interviews with practitioners and addi- ing processes and the means to link visioning outputs within tional background research. the Decision Guide's transportation planning processes. Complete a working paper and case study compendium to Visioning in support of transportation planning offers the produce an introduction to visioning and evolution of the opportunity to match public expectations to project out- visioning process. Findings from this foundational research comes, to enhance consensus decision making, and to better and case study documentation were used to inform the integrate transportation, community, socioeconomic, and research and presentation of subsequent tasks. environmental considerations. A secondary but important product of this project is a sup- porting website, TransportationVisioning for Communities Task 2: Describe Transportation Infrastructure Impacts on Communities (T-VIZ), which interactively presents the Vision Guide blue- print process and fully integrates the research findings of this The objective of Task 2 was to describe how to incorporate project (Cambridge Systematics, Inc. 2011). quality of life and community context concerns into a vision- ing process by establishing appropriate indicators and mea- sures. The work was completed through the following steps: Research Approach Research for this project was conducted through the 10 tasks Conduct a literature review to compile available research on described below. quality of life and the impact of transportation on commu- nities at the local, regional, and state levels. Research was synthesized, and a database was compiled of relevant com- Task 1: Compile Background Information munity context screening tools. These tools are presented on Visioning Processes interactively on the project website, including links to rele- The objective of Task 1 was to document lessons learned, key vant examples. aspects, and relevant background information on prior vision- Review related SHRP 2 Capacity research to include work ing processes conducted since the early 1990s. The work was products and materials from Capacity Project C02 (Perfor- conducted through the following steps: mance Measurement Framework for Highway Capacity 7

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8 Decision Making), Capacity Project C03 (Interactions completed in organizational management and other Between Transportation Capacity, Economic Systems, and areas of study. Land Use), and case studies from Task 1 of this project to Document partnership models to draw on information from identify community impact analysis practices, measures, case study findings in Task 1. The methods and models and results. used in the case studies were documented and reviewed for Prepare a working paper on considering communities that best practices and lessons learned. would become Chapter 5 of this report. Prepare research results for inclusion in the report's section on forming partnerships, now Chapter 7. Task 3: Identify a Stakeholder Outreach Program Task 5: Develop a Sound Commitment Tracking Process The objective of Task 3 was to identify common outreach tools and techniques that support effective stakeholder engage- The objective of Task 5 was to describe a performance-based ment processes for visioning and that enable practitioners to commitment tracking process that ensures that core princi- build lasting public support. The work was completed through ples, consensus outcomes, and committed results from the the following steps: vision are incorporated and embodied in project delivery. The work was completed through the following steps: Complete a literature review to compile public involvement tools and techniques for engaging stakeholders in trans- Complete a practice review to compile and document data portation planning processes. The review focused on rel- on processes and commitment tracking systems in use by evant guidance, publications, noteworthy practices, and transportation agencies. case studies on effective outreach programs of visioning Develop a prototypical process to describe a generic com- processes in support of transportation planning. mitment tracking process that extends from visioning Conduct practitioner interviews to identify emerging best through planning and project development to mainte- practices in stakeholder outreach methods, tools, and nance of infrastructure. The process is illustrated through approaches. Interviews were incorporated as part of the a flow diagram, supplemented with descriptions of each Task 1 case study development, and were designed to explore process step. general best practices and how visioning outreach tools sup- Assess the process to provide a recommended commitment port collaboration attributes identified in other SHRP 2 tracking process, and integrate the process into the imple- area research. mentation phase of the Vision Guide. Develop a guide to visioning outreach tools to help practitio- Prepare a working paper on tracking commitments that ners select from the range of available tools and techniques would become Chapter 8 of this report. to focus on those most appropriate to specific activity areas within a visioning process. The tools and techniques within Task 6: Prepare a Business Case the guide are presented interactively on the project web- site, including links to relevant examples. The objective of Task 6 was to prepare decision criteria and Prepare a working paper on reaching stakeholders that would business case guidance for assessing the benefits and costs of become Chapter 6 of this report. conducting visioning in support of transportation planning. The work was completed through the following steps: Task 4: Describe Effective Assess benefits and costs, drawing on information collected Partnering Strategies through interviews during the case study process and Task 4's objective was to identify purposes, structures, and extensive background literature review. This assessment common models of internal and external partnerships that focuses on the qualitative aspects of visioning benefits, help ensure success of a visioning process from inception including the quality of and public satisfaction with proj- to implementation. The work was completed through the ects, and degrees of public and elected official support. following steps: Assess agency risks and trade-offs to provide a set of decision factors or high-level guidance for agency managers to assess Complete a literature review to compile information on the intangible trade-offs, risks, and rewards of involvement partnership models and functions. The review went in a visioning process. beyond the scope of the literature within the transporta- Prepare a working paper that would become Chapter 3 of tion industry; the majority of work on this topic has been this report.

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9 Task 7: Develop a Model Vision Process Guide as part of Task 9. An overview of the vetting plan and Practitioner's Guide is included as Appendix B. The objective of Task 7 was to develop a model vision process relevant to a range of types and contexts, and to produce a Task 9: Revise Practitioner's Guide draft Practitioner's Guide. This work was completed through and Prepare Technical Report the following steps: The objective of Task 9 was to revise the draft Practitioner's Guide based on the results of the Task 8 review and com- Design a model vision process through the review of case ments from the Technical Expert Task Group, and to develop studies, expert opinion, Task 1 interviews with practitio- the project's final report. The task was completed through the ners, and reviews of existing literature. The model vision following steps: process developed is modular and customizable to serve as a general outline to guide any agency through a vision Revise the draft Practitioner's Guide and respond to input (see Chapter 2). received during the Technical Expert Task Group review Document visioning input linkages into the Decision Guide and testing results obtained in Task 8. by including key decision points within the model process. Prepare a draft of the final technical report to compile and These decision points link directly into the Decision Guide document all research completed for this project, includ- and provide an easy way for a convener agency to apply the ing the background, rationale, and structure of the Practi- outputs of a vision to transportation processes. Produce a Practitioner's Guide that integrates the results of tioner's Guide. Conduct a review and comment period to allow for feedback research to date into an interactive, web-based Practitio- ner's Guide to help practitioners apply visioning in sup- from the project panel for input into the completed draft port of transportation planning. final technical report. Prepare and submit the final technical report and Practitioner's Guide to incorporate the panel's comments, and prepare the Task 8: Vet the Draft Practitioner's Guide final products of the technical report and Practitioner's The objective of Task 8 was to determine the utility of the draft Guide, including the project website. Practitioner's Guide for transportation agencies, key part- ners, and practitioners. The work was conducted through the Task 10: Create Training Products following steps: The objective of Task 10 was to develop, implement, and sup- Identify potential venues for vetting to target a range of port an electronic-based training tool that instructs practitio- practitioner audiences. The project team secured presen- ners how to use the model vision process, and how the outcomes tation time at three well-attended 2010 events: the Amer- of visioning techniques can be integrated into transportation ican Planning Association Conference in New Orleans; planning and project development decision making. The work the Context-Sensitive Solutions National Dialogue in was completed through the following steps: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; and the TRB Environ- mental Meeting in Raleigh, North Carolina. In each case, Evaluate alternatives to determine the best electronic media the Practitioner's Guide was presented to attendants, and options and specific form to be used, including webinars feedback was solicited. (which then can be made accessible for subsequent replay). Create a feedback mechanism to gather broad input through Develop a set of training objectives to provide an overall an online survey and dedicated comment e-mail address, training outline, based on research conducted. hosted online on the draft Practitioner's Guide website. Create and provide online training products that will then Feedback from respondents was requested at each of the be hosted on the project website for a viewing audience. three vetting venues, and an e-mail was sent to request fur- Three presentations describing the project background, ther feedback. how to navigate the Vision Guide, and how to implement Compile the review comments to synthesize results, and the Vision Guide were recorded and posted on the Techni- coordinate with the project panel's comments to incor- cal Resources page of the T-VIZ website (Cambridge Sys- porate suggested revisions into the final Practitioner's tematics, Inc. 2011).