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14 CHAPTER 3 Findings and Applications Airport Use of LOS Standards Table 12 shows the average perception ratings for each functional area when the time spent in the queue for that The TransSolutions team surveyed airports throughout the process, or the process itself, is taken into consideration. Pas- United States and Canada to determine what guidelines and sengers' tolerance for wait times of 25 min or less, although parameters they used at their facilities for planning. The proj- seemingly rather long, is consistent with findings reported by ect team elected to use the online survey tool Survey Gizmo Mumayiz and Ashford (10). In general, there is a tendency for (www.sgizmo.com). Approximately 20% of surveyed air- the perception ratings to increase (i.e., to become worse) on ports responded. average as the time spent increases. The bag claim, SSCP, Of the responding airports, 65% were familiar with LOS staffed agent check-in, and kiosk areas show statistically sig- standards and used them to plan various elements of their nificant increases over time. facilities. However, only about 30% of respondents believe that a new North American LOS standard would be a major improvement. Determination of Perception Turning Points for Area and Wait Time Data Point Summary Tables 13 and 14 show the breakdown of the conditions Nearly 4,000 passenger intercept interviews were conducted that were tested to determine if there were significant differ- successfully at the seven chosen airports. The quantitative and ences in the average perception ratings for a given airport qualitative data collection teams combined efforts at four of function based on area per passenger. As noted in the previ- the seven airports. Table 7 is a summary of the data collection ous chapter, the area used in the calculation was based on air- methods used in each functional area and the number of data port area surveys. points collected that contained useable perception values. Using the approach described in the previous section, the There were a differing number of quantitative data points data collected indicated TPs for the various functions, as taken for each airport function across the seven airports due summarized in Table 15. to passenger demand patterns and data collector scheduling. No specific turning points were found for any functional Table 8 shows the number of quantitative responses collected areas when looking at the data for area available per passen- (that included a perception rating) by function at each airport. ger. Reported perception averages rarely exceeded 3.0 in any The data from all seven airports were tabulated, and the av- of our area-per-passenger buckets (As used here, "buckets" erage perception ratings for each of the airport functions were are a grouping of raw data into ranges.) No clear trend could calculated. Table 9 shows the average perception ratings for be ascertained from the data. Perception values ranged from each airport and each functional area. excellent (1) to very bad (5) for each function regardless of Additionally, the data were summarized for small and large passenger space available. airports to identify any significant differences that might Turning points were determined for four functional areas exist. This information is shown in Table 10. with regard to waiting time. In these, a clear trend in the data Table 11 shows the average perception ratings for each func- could be established, and the approximate waiting time where tional area when the area per passenger for that process is taken the average perception values went from acceptable to less into consideration. than acceptable could be determined.

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15 Table 7. Data collection process summary. Sample Size (7 Airports) Functional Area Data Collection Methodology Quantitative Qualitative 283 agent Passenger interview before and 61 curbside Passenger after queuing process 580 kiosk 27 check-in Ethnographic research 84 bag drop 1,008 Total Passenger interview before and SSCP after queuing process 1,012 8 Ethnographic research Passenger interview at arrival and APM when APM arrives 129 2 Ethnographic research Passenger interview in transit Corridor 345 10 Ethnographic research Passenger interview upon arrival to Holdroom holdroom and at boarding call 624 153 Ethnographic research Passenger interview at arrival and Bag claim after bag claimed 861 42 Ethnographic research Total 3,979 242 Table 8. Quantitative data collected at each airport by function. Function ATL AUS DFW IAD LAS OAK SDF Total Curbside 37 ** ** 8 ** 11 5 61 Check-in agent 48 27 142 ** 43 23 ** 283 Kiosk 123 106 43 137 44 38 89 580 Bag drop 4 53 ** 15 12 ** ** 84 SSCP 156 96 238 205 136 114 67 1,012 APM 18 * 96 ** 15 * * 129 Corridor 72 75 52 25 57 28 36 345 Holdroom 129 77 31 130 127 55 75 624 Bag claim 113 101 134 191 97 130 95 861 Total 700 535 736 711 531 399 367 3,979 *No APM at this airport **No data collected Table 9. Average perception ratings for each airport by function. Function ATL AUS DFW IAD LAS OAK SDF Curbside 1.7 1.9 ** 1.8 1.6 2.2 1.2 Check-in agent 2.7 2.6 2.1 ** 2.7 1.9 ** Kiosk 2.1 1.6 1.4 2.2 2.2 1.7 2.3 Bag drop 1.4 2.2 ** 2.4 2.3 ** ** SSCP 1.5 1.8 2.1 2 1.7 2.1 2.2 APM 1.6 * 1.4 * 1.5 * * Corridor 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.8 Holdroom 2.4 1.7 2.2 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.8 Bag claim 2 1.6 2.1 2.4 2.1 2.7 1.6 *No APM at this airport **No data collected

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16 Table 10. Average perception ratings by airport size. Small/Medium Large Airport Airport Significant Function Average p-value Average Difference Perception Perception Curbside 1.19 1.93 0.001 Yes Ticketing 2.22 2.42 0.159 No Kiosk 2.12 2.16 0.832 No Bag drop 2.19 2.16 0.893 No SSCP 1.99 1.89 0.310 No Corridor 1.72 2.07 0.001 Yes Holdroom 1.79 1.97 0.056 No Bag claim 2.06 2.21 0.012 Yes Table 11. Average perception ratings by function based on area per passenger. Area per Passenger (sq ft) Function 05 >510 >1015 >1520 >2025 >25 Check-in agent 2.3 2.1 2.6 4.2 3.0 2.0 Kiosk 1.0 2.1 1.8 1.8 2.5 1.7 Bag drop * * 2.2 2.4 1.9 2.3 SSCP 2.1 2.8 2.3 2.0 1.9 2.0 APM * 2.0 * * * 1.4 Corridor * * * * * 1.9 Holdroom * 4.0 1.6 1.8 2.3 1.9 Bag claim * * * 2.1 2.3 2.2 *No data collected Table 12. Average perception ratings by function based on wait time spent in process. Time Spent in Queue or Process (min) Function 05 >510 >1015 >1520 >2025 >2530 >3035 >3540 >4045 >4550 >5055 >5560 Curbside 1.5 2.1 2.3 * * * * * * * * * Check-in agent 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.2 3.4 3.1 4.1 4.3 4.0 5.0 5.0 4.3 Kiosk 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.7 3.3 * * * * * * 2.0 Bag drop 2.2 2.3 2.6 1.0 * * * * * * * * SSCP 1.8 2.4 2.6 1.0 * 2.0 3.6 3.5 * * * 2.0 Corridor 1.8 * * * * * * * * * * * Holdroom 2.4 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.9 1.8 2.1 1.9 Bag claim 1.6 1.8 2.3 2.9 2.9 2.9 4.0 4.0 2.8 1.0 4.0 4.0 *No data collected Table 13. Breakdown of data groups based on area Table 14. Breakdown of data groups based per passenger. on wait time. Test Condition for Test Condition for Data Group A Data Group B Functional Area Data Group A Data Group B Wait Time per Passenger Condition 1 Wait time 5 min Wait time > 5 min Condition 1 Area 5 sq ft per passenger Area > 5 sq ft per passenger Condition 2 Wait time 10 min Wait time > 10 min Condition 2 Area 10 sq ft per passenger Area > 10 sq ft per passenger Condition 3 Wait time 15 min Wait time > 15 min Condition 3 Area 15 sq ft per passenger Area > 15 sq ft per passenger Condition 4 Wait time 20 min Wait time > 20 min Condition 4 Area 20 sq ft per passenger Area > 20 sq ft per passenger Condition 5 Wait time 30 min Wait time > 30 min