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29 Table 32. Average passenger market, and airline type. Table 34 shows the data groupings perception of baggage claim for each test condition. experience versus area per passenger. Table 35 shows the breakdown between business and leisure passenger average perception ratings for each of the Area per Passenger (sq ft) Average Perception 1520 2.1 functional group data sets. However, none of the functional >2025 2.3 groupings indicated statistically significant differences be- >2530 2.6 tween the perception averages. Therefore, we could not dis- >3035 2.4 cern any impact that trip purpose had on passenger percep- >3540 n/a tion rating. This finding is consistent with work reported by >4045 2.4 >4550 2.0 Seneviratne and Martel in 1991 (5). >5055 2.4 Table 36 shows the breakdown between domestic and in- >5560 1.6 ternational passenger average perception ratings for each of the functional group data sets. Only the SSCP areas and hold- rooms indicated statistically significant differences between fails to show a significant difference between area per pas- the perception averages. senger and average perception rating for the fourth test Table 37 shows the breakdown of airline by type. Legacy condition (4). There were no data available for the first three carriers are airlines such as American, Continental, and Delta. conditions (1 through 3), but a relationship could exist if Low-cost carriers are those such as Southwest and Jet Blue. the data could be collected for that region. Additionally, for all Due to sample size and other factors, only the bag claim, area buckets, the average perception rating generally remains curbside, and holdroom functions showed statistically signif- better than acceptable (less than 3.0). No TP is indicated for icant differences in mean perception ratings between these these data. types of carriers. Table 38 shows the perception data by the airline type. Passenger Perceptions Associated Qualitative (Ethnographic) Results with Air Service Categories Table 39 shows the overall tally of responses from the qual- To determine if the average perception data showed signif- itative study for general categories of interest. Note that a pas- icant differences based on the other information collected, senger could contribute more than one comment. We have the data were grouped for various test conditions for each of highlighted the top five response categories for each comment the factors of interest: purpose of trip, destination or arrival type for clarity. Figure 17. Perception ratings for bag claim process by area per passenger.

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30 Figure 18. Average perception ratings for bag claim process by area per passenger. Table 33. Results for test conditions for bag claim based on area per passenger. Test Condition Data Group A Data Group B p-value Significant Difference for Area Condition 1 Area 5 sq ft per passenger Area > 5 sq ft per passenger No data Condition 2 Area 10 sq ft per passenger Area > 10 sq ft per passenger No data Condition 3 Area 15 sq ft per passenger Area > 15 sq ft per passenger No data Condition 4 Area 20 sq ft per passenger Area > 20 sq ft per passenger .610 No Table 34. Additional breakdowns of Table 36. Average perception ratings by function and data groups. passenger arrival or destination market. Test Condition for Function Domestic International p-value Significant Difference Data Group A Data Group B Purpose of Trip Curbside 1.7 * No data Condition 1 Business Leisure Check-in agent 2.4 2.5 .326 No Condition 2 Domestic International Kiosk 2.1 2.2 .471 No Condition 3 Legacy carriers Low-cost carriers Bag drop 2.2 2.2 .982 No SSCP 1.9 2.2 .001 Yes Table 35. Average perception ratings by function APM 1.5 1.5 .778 No and passenger trip purpose. Corridor 1.9 1.7 .371 No Holdroom 1.8 2.1 .027 Yes Function Business Leisure p-value Significant Difference Bag claim 2.1 2.4** .417 No Curbside 1.5 1.8 .236 No *No international passengers at curbside Check-in agent 2.3 2.5 .155 No **Passengers who arrived at up-line international gateways Kiosk 2.2 2.1 .290 No Bag drop 2.3 2.1 .406 No SSCP 2.0 1.9 .098 No APM 1.6 1.5 .313 No Corridor 1.9 1.9 .588 No Holdroom 1.9 1.9 .750 No Bag claim 2.2 2.1 .222 No

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31 Table 37. Breakdown of Table 38. Average perception ratings for each function by type airline type for carriers of airline. sampled for this study. Function Legacy Carriers Low-Cost Carriers p-value Significant Difference Legacy Carriers Low-Cost Carriers Curbside 1.2 1.8 .012 Yes American AirTran Check-in agent 2.3 2.5 .142 No Continental Allegiant Kiosk 2.1 2.3 .076 No Delta JetBlue Bag drop 2.1 2.7 .247 No Northwest Southwest Holdroom 1.9 1.8 .013 Yes US Airways Bag claim 2.2 2.4 .037 Yes United Table 39. Qualitative data summary. Positive Negative Would Like to Response Category Comment Comment See Cleanliness 17 1 0 Congestion 0 6 0 Dining 17 5 12 Family friendly 1 1 9 Handicapped facilities/procedures 6 2 1 Moving walkways 0 1 6 Noise level 0 7 0 Paid amenities 0 1 5 Parking 2 2 2 Personal Amenity Space/Comfort 16 11 20 Restrooms 6 2 1 Shuttle system 3 4 1 Smoking facilities 3 2 3 Train system 18 3 0 TSA/ICE issues 22 15 3 Airport layout (size/distance/convenience) 11 9 0 Rental car facility 2 0 0 Airline customer service (agent-based) 14 13 0 Airport customer service (information booth) 5 1 1 Information displays (airline/flight info) 2 3 1 Airline customer service (machine-based/kiosks) 8 7 2 Airline logistics (flight delays/baggage handling) 4 20 0 Free amenities (television/outlets/Wi-Fi/clocks) 7 5 18 Wayfinding (signage/information booths) 28 14 12