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36 CHAPTER 5 Space Allocation Guidelines Background · There are convenient, adjacent, or nearby places for pas- sengers to wait when congestion in one particular area These guidelines are intended to provide updated guidance produces excessive density, since the study observed that to aviation stakeholders when evaluating or developing new, passengers self-regulate their comfort by waiting in adja- expanded, or upgraded North American airport facilities. As cent or nearby areas. detailed in this report, research completed in North American · Passenger demand used to size the space is based on the airports in the summer of 2008 did not discern a graduated end of the planning and design horizon. framework of increased or decreased passenger perception of LOS associated with the density of passenger queues. More- It is important that the data used to plan and design pas- over, the data collection showed conclusively that passengers senger spaces be reliable. This means that the data represent do not perceive higher LOS due to more space being allocated current conditions at the airport with respect to air service to them as they wait for service at airports. markets served, airline processing methods and policies in Therefore, it is not suggested that airport owners or design- use, and prevailing government regulations. Furthermore, it ers who want to produce facilities that will provide higher is important that the data be adjusted as appropriate to rep- passenger perception of LOS attempt to achieve this goal by resent future conditions at the end of the planning and design increasing allocation of space per passenger or by making horizon so that the terminal layout will be robust through the passenger queue spaces larger. Passengers care far more about entire design life. If standard data are used, it is important to the quality of the space provided as related to how well that understand the operating conditions implicit in the standard space serves their needs for productivity of waiting time and in order to ensure that the data are applicable to the airport sanctuary from the stresses of travel. operation being planned. These guidelines are based on the passenger space allocation guideline for LOS C discussed in IATA's Airport Development Peak Occupancy Demand Forecast Reference Manual (1). The IATA guidelines are very similar to the space allocation guidelines offered by Transport Canada To start, each area studied must have a validated forecast and by Dr. John Fruin in his book, Pedestrian Planning and of the peak occupancy of that airport processing area. There Design (2). This work has been used in practice since the are many ways to develop these forecasts, including the appli- 1970s and has formed the basis for airport terminal develop- cation of planning standards to typical demand data usually ment since then. The relatively good passenger-waiting LOS found in airport master plans. Alternatively, peak occupancy observed in all of the study airports is testimony to the valid- for each area may be derived from an airport programming ity of this guidance. spreadsheet--either a proprietary tool developed by a quali- fied aviation consultant or the guidance provided by ACRP. A Few Words of Caution Another option is the output of a detailed computer simulation modeling analysis that provides estimates of peak occupancy for The ACRP 03-05 study team proposes use of LOS C as an each airport processing area. appropriate passenger space allocation goal so long as: Since the peak occupancy forecasts are evaluated by the avi- ation consultant, it is critical to ensure that certain passenger- · All necessary airport terminal processors are present in the behaviorrelated and air-servicerelated factors have been design and sized to produce a balanced flow. accurately applied, including