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35 GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)--A primary FAA heat to boil water and drive a traditional steam turbine for publication whose purpose is to instruct airmen about oper- the production of electricity. ating in the National Airspace System of the United States. Cooling tower--see air-cooled condenser. It provides basic flight information, air traffic control pro- Cooperative Research and Development Agreement cedures, and general instructional information concerning (CRADA)--A written agreement between a private com- health, medical facts, factors affecting flight safety, acci- pany and a government agency to work together on a project. dent and hazard reporting, and types of aeronautical charts Created as a result of the StevensonWydler Technology and their use. Innovation Act of 1980, as amended by the Federal Tech- Air-cooled condenser--also referred to generically as dry nology Transfer Act of 1986, a CRADA allows the federal cooling, an air-cooled condenser condenses exhaust steam government and non-federal partners to optimize their from the steam turbine and returns condensate to the boiler resources, share technical expertise in a protected environ- without using cooling water. Two typical designs are ment, share intellectual property emerging from the effort, mechanical draft and natural draft. In either case, air cools and speed the commercialization of federally developed the exhaust steam causing hot air and condensate (which is technology. reused in the plant). Digital Airport Surveillance Radar (DASR)--a new terminal Air route surveillance radar (ARSR)--radar used primarily air traffic control radar system that replaces current analog to detect and display an aircraft's position while en route systems with new digital technology. The U.S. Air Force between terminal areas. The ARSR enables controllers Electronics Systems Center, the FAA, and the U.S. Navy are to provide radar air traffic control service when aircraft in the process of procuring DASR systems to upgrade exist- are within the ARSR coverage. In some instances, ARSR ing radar facilities for the DoD and civilian airfields. The may enable an air traffic control center to provide termi- DASR system detects aircraft position and weather condi- tions in the vicinity of civilian and military airfields. The nal radar services similar to but usually more limited than civilian nomenclature for this radar is the ASR-11. ASR-11 those provided by a radar approach control. will replace existing ASR-7, ASR-8, and ASR-9 models. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP)--An The military nomenclature for the radar is AN/GPN-30. The industry-driven, applied research program that develops older radars, some up to 20 years old, are being replaced to near-term, practical solutions to problems faced by air- improve reliability, provide additional weather data, reduce port operators. ACRP is managed by TRB for the FAA. maintenance cost, improve performance, and provide digi- The research is conducted by contractors who are selected tal data to new digital automation systems for presentation on the basis of competitive proposals. on air traffic controller displays. Airport surveillance radar (ASR)--approach control radar Dish engine--also referred to as a dish stirling, this is a type used to detect and display an aircraft's position in the of concentrating solar power system that is a stand-alone terminal area. ASR provides range and azimuth infor- parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver mation but does not provide elevation data. Coverage of positioned at the reflector's focal point. the ASR can extend up to 60 miles. Distributed energy--Distributed energy refers to a variety Bureau of Land Management (BLM)--Division of the of small, modular power-generating technologies that can U.S. Department of the Interior whose mission is to sus- be combined with load management and energy storage tain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public systems to improve the quality and/or reliability of the elec- lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future tricity supply. generations. Department of Defense (DoD)--cabinet department of the U.S. Civilian Aviation Authority (CAA) of the United Kingdom-- federal government responsible for the country's defense agency responsible for safety regulation of civil aviation in policy with authority over the military and civilian forces. the United Kingdom under the Civil Aviation Act 1982. Department of Energy (DOE)--cabinet department of the California Energy Commission (CEC)--state's primary U.S. federal government responsible for the country's energy policy and planning agency established in 1974. energy policy. Clutter--unwanted (false) returns picked up by the radar. Department of Transportation (DOT)--cabinet department of Concentrating solar power plants--solar generation tech- the U.S. federal government responsible for the country's nology that utilizes mirrors to focus and intensify the sun's transportation policy and infrastructure.

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36 Diffuse reflection--produces a less concentrated light and Peaker power plants--typically traditional fossil fuel-fired occurs from rough surfaces such as pavement, vegetation, stations modified to start up and shut down quickly to and choppy water. respond to seasonal fluctuations in energy demand. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)--a document pre- Power tower--facility is comprised of individual heliostats pared by a federal agency to demonstrate that its actions are (mirrors) arranged in a circular array that track with the sun. in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act. Each heliostat reflects sunlight onto the central receiver at Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--the federal agency the top of a tower. whose mission is to protect human health and the environ- Primary surveillance radar (PSR)--uses a continually rotat- ment through the enforcement of laws enacted by the fed- ing antenna mounted on a tower to transmit electromag- eral government. netic waves that reflect, or backscatter, from the surface of Farm (as in wind farm or solar farm)--a group of generator aircraft up to 60 miles from the radar. The radar system units that together produce significantly more electricity measures the time required for a radar echo to return and than any one unit alone. the direction of the signal. From this, the system can then Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)--the federal agency measure the distance of the aircraft from the radar antenna whose mission is to provide the safest and most efficient and the azimuth, or direction, of the aircraft in relation to aerospace system in the world. the antenna. The primary radar also provides data on six Form 7460--Notice submitted to the FAA for structures that levels of rainfall intensity. The primary radar operates in impinge on airspace as defined by 14 CFR Part 77. the range of 2700 to 2900 MHz. The transmitter generates Glare--a continuous source of bright light. a peak effective power of 25 kW and an average power of Glint--a momentary flash of bright light. 2.1 kW. The average power density of the ASR-11 signal Heat recovery system generator (HRSG)--extracts heat in the decreases with distance from the antenna. At distances flue gas producing cooler exhaust temperatures and lower of more than 43 ft from the antenna, the power density of exit velocities the ASR-11 signal falls below the maximum permissible Instrument flight rules (IFR)--A set of rules governing the con- exposure levels established by the Federal Communications duct of flight under instrument meteorological conditions. Commission. Instrument landing system (ILS)--A precision instrument Probability of detection (Pd)--measures the likelihood of approach system that normally consists of the following detecting an event or object when the event does occur. electronic components and visual aids: localizer, glideslope, Secondary surveillance radar (SSR)--uses a second radar outer marker, middle marker, and approach lights. antenna attached to the top of the primary radar antenna Nacelle--A box that sits on top of the wind tower and encloses to transmit and receive area aircraft data for barometric the turbine generator and other equipment necessary for gen- altitude, identification code, and emergency conditions. erating electricity. Military, commercial, and some general aviation aircraft National Airspace System--The common network of U.S. have transponders that automatically respond to a signal airspace; air navigation facilities, equipment and services, from the secondary radar by reporting an identification airports or landing areas, aeronautical charts, information code and altitude. The air traffic control uses this system and services, rules, regulations and procedures, technical to verify the location of aircraft within a 60-mile radius information, and manpower and material. Included are of the radar site. The beacon radar also provides rapid system components shared jointly with the military. identification of aircraft in distress. The secondary radar Navigable airspace--Airspace at and above the minimum operates in the range of 1030 to 1090 MHz. Transmitting flight altitudes prescribed in the CFRs including airspace power ranges from 160 to 1,500 watts. needed for safe takeoff and landing. Solar photovoltaic panels and farms--Solar photovoltaic Navigational Aids (NAVAIDS)--Any visual or electronic (PV) generates electricity from sunlight on light-absorbing device airborne or on the surface that provides point- panels with many panels together representing a solar farm. to-point guidance information or position data to aircraft Specular reflection--reflects a more concentrated type of in flight. light and occurs when the surface in question is smooth and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)--A U.S. envi- polished ronmental law that established a U.S. national policy pro- Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System moting the enhancement of the environment and also (STARS)--a system jointly procured by the FAA and established the President's Council on Environmental DoD to replace capacity-constrained, older technology Quality. systems at FAA and DOD terminal radar approach con- Office of Obstruction Evaluation/Airport Airspace Analysis trol facilities and associated towers. (OE/AAA)--A particular office under FAA's Air Traffic Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS)--procedures for Organization whose responsibility is to coordinate FAA's instrument approach and departure of aircraft to and from review of potential hazards to air navigation. civil and military airports. Parabolic trough--continually track the sun and concen- Thermal plume--vapor clouds produced by large-scale emis- trate the sun's heat onto receiver tubes filled with a heat sions of heated water vapor either through a direct emission transfer fluid. or from an air-cooling structure.

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37 Transmission infrastructure--Transmission infrastructure cies in this band are used for purposes not related to air including towers and electrical lines are a fundamental traffic control. component of any energy project that generates electricity Visual flight rules (VFR)--Rules that govern the procedures and delivers it to the electrical grid. for conducting flight under visual conditions. The term Ultra-high frequency (UHF)--The frequency band between "VFR" is also used in the United States to indicate weather 300 and 3,000 MHz. The bank of radio frequencies used conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR for military air/ground voice communications. In some requirements. In addition, it is used by pilots and con- instances this may go as low as 225 MHz and still be referred trollers to indicate type of flight plan. to as UHF. Wind turbine generator (WTG)--A machine that converts Very high frequency (VHF)--The frequency band between wind energy into electricity. 30 and 300 MHz. Portions of this band, 108 to 118 MHz, Utility-scale--refers to larger electricity generation units that are used for certain NAVAIDs; 118 to 136 MHz are used typically transmit most if not all of the electricity gener- for civil air/ground voice communications. Other frequen- ated to the electric grid.