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5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION This report presents the results of ACRP Project S10-06, Inves- literature that supports efficient siting of newer technology tigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports plants near airports is not available in one location in a concise and Aviation. This introductory chapter describes the purpose format for use by airport operators, aviation land use planners, of the report, presents the methodology used to develop the and regulators. report, and outlines the organization of the report. The objective of this synthesis project is to compile exist- ing literature, data, and ongoing research on physical, visual, PURPOSE OF REPORT and communications systems interference impacts from As federal, state, and local governments increase support energy technologies on airport and aviation safety. It is not for energy sources such as solar, wind, and other types of an analysis of federal and state energy or aviation policy. power plants, the impact of these technologies on the opera- The intended audience for the report is airport operators, tional safety of airports and aviation is coming under increased planning managers, energy developers, and legislators and scrutiny. regulators responsible for aviation safety, land use com- patibility, airport planning and development, and airport Solar energy is a growing alternative energy source. Despite financial self-sustainability. its generally accepted use on or adjacent to airports there are concerns. Two major safety concerns frequently expressed by pilots and airport operators regarding solar collectors are METHODOLOGY glare and physical location. Glare can cause temporary visual impairment to pilots or controllers. Improper placement can This synthesis report follows four steps. First, a review of the adversely affect the safety of airport operations. Wind energy existing literature was completed to identify potential hazards is another growing alternative energy source. Two major from energy technologies on airports and aviation. Second, concerns are the height of the turbines/blades and communi- experts in the area of energy and aviation were contacted and cations systems interference. Other concerns include turbu- interviewed to augment the existing information base. Third, lence, lighting and marking for wind farms, and temporary the information has been organized in a systematic format meteorological test facilities. 14 CFR Part 77 addresses the by energy technology and impact type that includes a con- height, location, and size of obstacles to aviation. However, cise understanding of the potential impact, methods avail- much of this information is advisory in nature, and limited able for defining and measuring potential impacts, laws and data exist on the extent of radar interference occurrences policies that have been enacted to codify impact definition between wind turbine farms and various types of air traffic and required analyses, and mitigation practices available to control radar systems. States and local governments are wit- minimize impacts to an acceptable level. The literature review nessing an increase in the number of applications to locate provides examples from existing projects to support the impact power plants adjacent to airports. Exhaust plumes from these definition and analysis. As a final step, gaps in the existing plants have the potential to create in-flight hazards that affect literature have been identified and suggestions for future the control and maneuverability of aircraft. However, the research provided.