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6 REPORT STRUCTURE The remainder of this document is as follows: Chapter Two--Energy Technologies and Types of Impacts An introduction to the developing energy technologies (and associated infrastructure) identified by the Topic Panel as presenting a potential hazard to airport and aviation is provided. As a basis for assessing impacts on airports and aviation the regulatory definition of navigable airspace is presented. Then the potential types of impacts that might occur from the energy technologies on airports and aviation operating in airspace are described. A section on the sources of information available for understanding the current state of practice that have been used in this report is also provided. Chapter Three--Solar Energy and Potential Impacts An introduction to the different types of solar technologies and the potential impacts associated with each is provided. The technologies described are photovoltaics and concentrating solar power. Potential impacts focus on physical penetration of airspace, communications systems interference, visual impacts from glare and vapor plumes, and turbulence from thermal plumes. Technology-specific mitigation measures are provided. Chapter Four--Wind Energy and Potential Impacts Wind energy facilities and potential impacts on airports and aviation are described. A brief overview of the modern wind turbine generator is provided and typical configurations for facilities described. Potential impacts of wind energy facilities are defined as physical penetration of airspace, communications systems interference, and rotor-induced turbulence. Technology- specific mitigation measures are provided. Chapter Five--Traditional Power Plants and Potential Impacts New traditional power plants and their potential impacts on airports and aviation are described. A summary of power plant technology, siting objectives, and electricity generation drivers is provided. Potential impacts from traditional power plants are identified as turbulence from thermal plumes and visual impacts from vapor plumes produced by cooling towers. Technology-specific mitigation measures are provided. Chapter Six--Electrical Transmission Infrastructure All of the energy-generation technologies described previously require electrical transmission infrastructure to deliver electricity along high-voltage lines to areas where the electricity will be consumed (oftentimes referred to as "load centers"). Potential impacts of new transmission infrastructure on airports and aviation include physical penetration of airspace and communications interference. Chapter Seven--Summary of Data Gaps and Agency Programs An assessment of potential data gaps is presented along with a description of the benefits of filling those gaps to understanding potential impacts and protecting safe air navigation. In addition, ongoing agency efforts for investigating conflicts between energy and aviation are described. Chapter Eight--Conclusions The final chapter summarizes the findings of the report. These findings will provide a technical assessment of current practices, describe barriers to further understanding of the issues and solutions, and identify existing knowledge gaps. Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms A brief glossary of terminology, including abbreviations and acronyms commonly used in energy and aviation, used in the synthesis report is provided. References A listing of the reports, websites, and data sources used in preparing the synthesis report is provided.