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7 TABLE 2 NETWORK AND REGIONAL CARRIERS IN BANKRUPTCY AND OUTCOMES, 19892010 Date Regional Carrier Date Regional Carrier Mar-89 Eastern Air Lines (re-emerged) Jan-02 Sun Country Airlines (re-emerged) Sep-89 Braniff International (ceased operations) Jul-02 Vanguard Airlines (ceased operations) Oct-89 Presidential Airways (ceased operations) Aug-02 US Airways (re-emerged) Dec-90 Continental Airlines (re-emerged) Dec-02 United Airlines (re-emerged) Jan-91 Pan Am World Airways (re-emerged) Mar-03 Hawaiian Airlines (re-emerged) Jan-91 Eastern Air Lines (ceased operations) Oct-03 Midway Airlines (ceased operations) Mar-91 Midway Airlines (re-emerged) Sep-04 US Airways (re-emerged) Jun-91 America West Airlines (merged with US Airways) Oct-04 ATA Airlines (re-emerged) Nov-91 Midway Airlines (ceased operations) Dec-04 Aloha Airlines (re-emerged) Jan-92 Trans World Airlines (re-emerged) Sep-05 Delta Air Lines (re-emerged) Jun-92 Markair (re-emerged) Sep-05 Comair (acquired by Delta Air Lines) Sep-93 Hawaiian Airlines (re-emerged) Sep-05 Northwest Airlines (merged with Delta Air Lines) Apr-95 Markair (ceased operations) Oct-05 Mesaba Airlines (re-emerged) Jun-95 Trans World Airlines (re-emerged) Nov-05 Atlantic Coast Airlines (ceased operations) Aug-97 Air South (ceased operations) Jan-06 Independence Air (ceased operations) Oct-97 Western Pacific Airlines (ceased operations) Mar-08 Aloha Airlines (ceased operations) Feb-98 Pan Am World Airways (ceased operations/name sold) Apr-08 ATA Airlines (acquired by Southwest Airlines) Mar-99 Kiwi International Airlines (ceased operations) Apr-08 Skybus Airlines (ceased operations) Jun-99 Sunjet Int'l/Myrtle Beach Jet Express (ceased operations) Apr-08 Frontier Airlines (acquired by Republic Airlines) Dec-00 National Airlines (acquired by Delta Air Lines) May-08 Air Midwest (ceased operations) Dec-00 Allegiant Air (re-emerged) Oct-08 Sun Country (re-emerged) Jan-01 Trans World Airlines (acquired by American Airlines) Jan-10 Mesa Air (in bankruptcy) Aug-01 Midway Airlines (re-emerged) Nov-10 Gulfstream International (in bankruptcy) Source: KRAMER aerotek, inc. (2010). does not begin to describe how passenger flow in the United systems (mechanical, electrical, plumbing, security, and fire States has dramatically changed. Table 3 sorts connecting hub suppression), environmental considerations, reuse options, airports in the United States starting with airports that have and the cost for each option. If the tenant has vacated a prop- experienced the largest absolute gain in enplaned passengers. erty but is still paying rent, reuse assessments may be done New York's JFK, Charlotte, and Denver are among the fast- as a joint venture if the tenant is willing. Reuse decisions est growing airports in the country, each growing in excess typically fall into the following categories: of 5.6 million enplanements (approximately 11 million total passengers) from 2000 to 2009. However, at the other end of · Replacement tenant, the spectrum, St. Louis lost 9.2 million enplanements, Cincin- · Adaptive reuse, nati lost 6.0 million, and Pittsburgh lost 5.9 million. In these · Demolition, and instances, the loss of more than 50% of enplaned passengers · Do nothing. has had an enormous impact on individual airport revenues and the demand for services and aeronautical facilities. In Replacement Tenant response, each of these airports has consolidated gates, closed off whole or parts of concourses, and taken on responsibilities For specialized buildings such as hangars, maintenance, or for baggage handling and other systems. cargo facilities, airports often take a hard look at the pos- sibilities of leasing some or all of the space to a tenant that would use the property for a similar purpose. This approach REUSE STRATEGIES was taken at the former United Indianapolis Maintenance Center (IMC), a 217-acre campus with 1.7 million square Airports faced with vacant aeronautical facilities typically feet of space. AAR Aircraft Services Inc. leased 750,000 ft2 either solicit proposals for reuse or undertake reuse studies of the IMC, including 10 of the 12 hangar bays. Most of the to assess the physical condition of a building and existing remaining space was subdivided and leased to other tenants.
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8 TABLE 3 ENPLANEMENTS AT U.S. CONNECTING HUBS Hub Airports CY 2000 CY 2009 Actual Gain/Loss of 20002009 Change (%) Enplanements New York (JFK) 16,155,437 22,710,272 6,554,835 40.6 Charlotte 11,469,282 17,165,376 5,696,094 49.7 Denver 18,382,940 24,013,669 5,630,729 30.6 Atlanta 39,277,901 42,280,868 3,002,967 7.6 Houston Intercontinental 16,358,035 19,290,239 2,932,204 17.9 Philadelphia 12,294,051 15,002,961 2,708,910 22.0 Las Vegas 17,424,214 19,445,952 2,021,738 11.6 Washington Dulles 9,643,275 11,132,098 1,488,823 15.4 Seattle 13,875,942 15,273,092 1,397,150 10.1 Chicago Midway 7,059,520 8,253,620 1,194,100 16.9 Baltimore 9,675,681 10,338,950 663,269 6.9 Phoenix 18,094,251 18,559,647 465,396 2.6 Salt Lake City 9,522,344 9,903,821 381,477 4.0 Houston Hobby 4,354,609 4,087,524 (267,085) 6.1 Miami 16,489,341 16,187,768 (301,573) 1.8 Newark 17,212,226 16,659,441 (552,785) 3.2 Memphis 5,684,619 5,054,191 (630,428) 11.1% Kansas City 5,903,296 4,894,349 (1,008,947) 17.1 San Francisco 19,556,795 18,467,908 (1,088,887) 5.6 MinneapolisSt. Paul 16,959,014 15,551,206 (1,407,808) 8.3 Cleveland 6,269,516 4,704,329 (1,565,187) 25.0 DallasFt. Worth 28,274,512 26,663,984 (1,610,528) 5.7 Detroit 17,326,775 15,211,402 (2,115,373) 12.2 Chicago O'Hare 33,845,895 31,135,732 (2,710,163) 8.0 Los Angeles 32,167,896 27,439,897 (4,727,999) 14.7 Pittsburgh 9,871,995 3,956,842 (5,915,153) 59.9 Cincinnati 11,223,966 5,194,214 (6,029,752) 53.7 St. Louis 15,288,493 6,084,070 (9,204,423) 60.2 Total Primary Airports 708,638,875 696,141,535 (12,497,340) 1.8 Source: FAA DOT/TSC CY 2000 and 2009, Air Carrier Activity Information System Database. Hillsborough County Airport Authority (HCAA) in Tampa also found a replacement tenant for a US Airways hangar vacated in November 2002. HCAA had to invest $400,000 into the property to repair the fire suppression system and meet safety codes. In 2008, PEMCO World Air Services leased the facility for large jet aircraft maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO). In August 2010, PEMCO dou- bled its space at Tampa by leasing another 161,500-ft2 han- gar, a former Delta facility. This hangar is the size of three football fields and is situated on 16.3 acres (see Figure 5). PEMCO wanted flexible parking arrangements within the FIGURE 5 Arrival of first major carrier aircraft at the new Tampa hangar. As part of the lease terms, HCAA agreed to upgrade facility; traditional water cannon salute. (Source: PEMCO.) the hangar's fire protection system, alarm system, and life safety. In addition, HCAA improved the mechanical, electri- Airports that pursue a replacement tenant strategy often cal, and plumbing systems before PEMCO's occupancy. have to maintain the vacated property until a tenant is
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9 found. The cost to maintain and secure a property can be to revitalize urban life and declining neighborhoods considerable. (MIT Greening East Campus). Adaptive Reuse Although adaptive reuse of facilities has its roots in urban redevelopment, its application at airports began largely as Adaptive reuse (AR) is conventionally defined as the process historic preservation projects to integrate significant archi- of adapting old structures for new purposes. The following tectural elements into terminal modernization programs. quotation describes AR in a more historical context: PANYNJ is undertaking an adaptive reuse of Eero Saarin- en's TWA Flight Center and integrating it into JetBlue's new To prolong the period from cradle-to-grave for a building by retaining all or most of the structural system and as Terminal 5 (see Figure 6). much as possible of other elements, such as cladding, glass, and interior partitions. ... The desire to preserve Adaptive reuse has been accomplished at other airports. historical buildings and neighborhoods emerged in SpringfieldBranson National Airport has converted its many Western countries out of various romanticist, nationalistic, and historicist streams. Today, the former passenger terminal into office space and a call cen- imperative to extend the life cycle of a structure is related ter for Expedia Inc. and for the Missouri Army National to various sustainability goals: sprawl minimization, Guard. Pittsburgh International Airport renovated a US preservation of virgin materials, and energy conservation. Airways cargo facility into a jet bridge rehabilitation Also, many Western cities are changing dramatically as industrial operations more often than not move to the center. There are also many examples of adaptive reuse South and the East leaving massive, sturdy buildings accomplished when closed military bases are reopened vacant. Institutional nature is also changing with many for public use. These examples are further described as old hospitals, sanatoriums, military buildings, and even case studies. office blocks becoming redundant. AR becomes a means FIGURE 6 TWA Flight Center and JetBlue Terminal 5 pans at JFK. (Sources: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and OBIT, Nov. 17, 2009.)