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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 25 Strategies for Reuse of Underutilized or Vacant Sponsored by the Federal Airport Facilities Aviation Administration A Synthesis of Airport Practice

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS JAMES WILDING Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Metropolitan Washington Airports Vice Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Authority (retired) Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS VICE CHAIR J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY JEFF HAMIEL DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern MinneapolisSt. Paul Corporation, Norfolk, VA Metropolitan Airports Commission WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles MEMBERS EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh JAMES CRITES JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International DallasFt. Worth International Airport Airport, TX RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia MICHAEL W. HANCOCK, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Massachusetts Institute of Technology ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE MICHAEL P. LEWIS, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Unison Consulting SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City JOHN K. DUVAL MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Austin Commercial, LP Arlington KITTY FREIDHEIM TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Freidheim Consulting Mandeville, LA STEVE GROSSMAN STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Jacksonville Aviation Authority HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO TOM JENSEN BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, National Safe Skies Alliance Atlanta, GA CATHERINE M. LANG DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Federal Aviation Administration LAWRENCE A. SELZER, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA GINA MARIE LINDSEY KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Los Angeles World Airports West Lafayette, IN CAROLYN MOTZ THOMAS K. SOREL, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Hagerstown Regional Airport DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, RICHARD TUCKER University of California, Davis Huntsville International Airport KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI EX OFFICIO MEMBERS C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of PAULA P. HOCHSTETLER Texas, Austin Airport Consultants Council SABRINA JOHNSON EX OFFICIO MEMBERS U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT RICHARD MARCHI J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Airports Council International-- REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, North America Smyrna, GA LAURA McKEE ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S.DOT HENRY OGRODZINSKI JOHN T. GRAY, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, National Association of State Aviation Washington, DC JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Officials Transportation Officials, Washington, DC MELISSA SABATINE DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT American Association of Airport VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Executives WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. TARA O'TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Transportation Research Board Security, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department SECRETARY of Homeland Security, Washington, DC CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Transportation Research Board Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC BARRY R. WALLERSTEIN, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of October 2010. *Membership as of June 2011.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 25 Strategies for Reuse of Underutilized or Vacant Airport Facilities A Synthesis of Airport Practice Consultants LOIS S. KRAMER AND ALICIA SELTZ KRAMER aerotek, inc. Boulder, Colorado S ubscriber C ategories Aviation Economics Finance Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 25 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transpor- Project 11-03, Topic S03-06 tation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international ISSN 1935-9187 commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system connects ISBN 978-0-309-14341-7 with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility Library of Congress Control Number 2011925673 for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most air- ports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principle means by COPYRIGHT INFORMATION which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials to meet demands placed on it. and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a used herein. study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the success- material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program and Transit product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes research and material in the document for educational and not-for-profit uses will other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides from CRP. a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision NOTICE 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Air- Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. port Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transporta- Department of Transportation with representation from airport operat- tion Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of ing agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing such as the Airports Council InternationalNorth America (ACI-NA), Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Trans- National Research Council. port Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical com- officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and mittee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research research organizations. Each of these participants has different inter- Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Admin- ests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this coopera- istration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. tive research effort. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodi- committee according to procedures established and monitored by the cally but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Govern- the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by ing Board of the National Research Council. identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the and expected products. National Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, (sponsor of the ACRP) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are consid- research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport ered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. professionals, the intended users of the research products. The pan- els prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contrac- Published reports of the tors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Transportation Research Board Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for and can be ordered through the Internet at: workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs JULIE KENFIELD, CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS JOSEPH J. BROWN-SNELL, Program Associate EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications RANDALL P. BURDETTE Virginia Department of Aviation KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF Unison Consulting, Inc. STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and LINDA HOWARD Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Bastrop, Texas Synthesis Studies ARLYN PURCELL JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer Port Authority of New York & New Jersey GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer BURR STEWART DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer Seattle, Washington DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant FAA LIAISON DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate PAUL DEVOTI ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON TOPIC PANEL A.J. MULDOON WILLIAM RANDELL FORISTER, Pittsburgh International Airport AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board ASSOCIATION LIAISON BRANDON J. MARK, Port of Oakland JOHN L. COLLINS EDWARD W. MORAN, Lee County (FL) Port Authority, Ft. Myers TRB LIAISON JOHN WALEWSKI, Texas A&M University CHRISTINE GERENCHER DAVID CUSHING, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) Cover figure: Reuse of former terminal at Springfield Branson National Airport (courtesy: SpringfieldBranson National Airport).

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FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coop- erative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE As the airline industry continues to consolidate, airports are responding to an environment By Gail R. Staba where demand (and revenue) for facilities is not only less predictable, but often reduced, sometimes at short notice. This synthesis study presents an overview of the issues sur- Senior Program Officer rounding the reuse of aeronautical facilities. Transportation Information used for this synthesis was gathered through a series of case studies and Research Board interviews with airport directors, property managers, and community economic develop- ment agencies. Panel members for this project requested a broad examination of reuse situations that address interim and long-term solutions to reuse, the decision process to maintain or demolish a structure, environmental and regulatory issues, success stories, and obstacles to effective reuse. Lois S. Kramer and Alicia Seltz, KRAMER aerotek, inc., Boulder, Colorado, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Synthesis, 3 Study Methodology, 3 Report Structure, 3 Other ACRP Resources, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO VACANT AND UNDERUTILIZED AIRPORT FACILITIES Roadmap for Reuse, 5 Functional Obsolescence, 5 Industry Change, 6 Reuse Strategies, 7 Complexities of Reuse of Aeronautical Property, 10 13 CHAPTER THREE CASE STUDY APPROACH 15 CHAPTER FOUR DAYTON INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT-- UPS MENLO FACILITY AND CARGO HUB Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 15 The Situation, 15 Reuse Options, 16 Risk Management, 16 Prospective Reuse, 17 Lessons Learned, 17 18 CHAPTER FIVE DULUTH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--DULUTH AIRPORT MAINTENANCE FACILITY Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 18 The Situation, 18 Reuse Preparations, 19 Tenant Recruitment, 19 Interim Use, 19 Lessons Learned, 20 21 CHAPTER SIX JOHN F. KENNEDY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--TWA FLIGHT CENTER Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 21 The Situation, 21 Background, 21 Lessons Learned, 23 24 CHAPTER SEVEN NEW BEDFORD REGIONAL AIRPORT--BRIDGEWATER STATE UNIVERSITY AVIATION TRAINING CENTER Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 24 The Situation, 24 Ownership and Compliance Issues, 25 Tenant Recruitment, 25 Joint Effort to Update Building, 26 Lessons Learned, 26

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27 CHAPTER EIGHT OAKLAND INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--OAKLAND MAINTENANCE CENTER Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 27 The Situation, 27 History and Disposition of the Property, 28 Reuse Decision, 29 Current Uses, 29 Lessons Learned, 30 31 CHAPTER NINE PHOENIXMESA GATEWAY AIRPORT--PASSENGER TERMINALMILITARY BASE REUSE OF BUILDING 15 Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 31 The Situation, 31 Background, 32 Reuse of Building 45, 32 Reuse of Building 15, 32 Lessons Learned, 33 35 CHAPTER TEN PITTSBURGH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--REUSE OF THE 1952 PITTSBURGH TERMINAL BUILDINGAIRSIDE BUSINESS PARK Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 35 The Situation, 35 Reuse Options, 35 Reuse Options Limited by Building Abandonment, 36 Development of the Airside Business Park, 37 Lessons Learned, 37 39 CHAPTER ELEVEN PITTSBURGH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--PITTSBURGH JETWAY REHABILITATION FACILITY Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 39 The Situation, 39 Development of the Business, 40 Reuse Decision, Building Modifications, and Staffing, 41 Innovations to PPBs and Partnership with JBT Aerotech, 42 Operations Today, 42 Lessons Learned, 42 44 CHAPTER TWELVE RICKENBACKER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT--MILITARY BASE REUSE Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 44 The Situation, 44 Lessons Learned, 46 47 CHAPTER THIRTEEN SPRINGFIELDBRANSON NATIONAL AIRPORT--ADAPTIVE REUSE OF FORMER TERMINAL Airport Sponsor and Interview Participants, 47 The Situation, 47 Background, 47 Tenant Recruitment and Lease Negotiations Issues, 48 Lessons Learned, 49 50 CHAPTER FOURTEEN CONCLUSIONS Decisive Action on Reuse or Demolition, 50 Keeping a Facility Alive Preserves Options (at a Cost), 50 Vacated Properties Require Additional Sources of Operating and Capital Funds, 51 Marketing a Vacant Building, 51 Planning for Flexible Use, 51 Risk Analysis for Vacancies, 51 Financing Adaptive Reuse, 52 Further Research, 52

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ix 53 GLOSSARY 54 ACRONYMS 56 REFERENCES 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY 58 APPENDIX A CASE STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE

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